SEARCH

SEARCH BY CITATION

References

  • Anderson, T.M., Ritchie, M.E. & McNaughton, S.J. (2007b) Rainfall and soils modify plant community response to grazing in Serengeti National Park. Ecology, 88, 11911201.
  • Anderson, T.M., Ritchie, M.E., Mayemba, E., Eby, S., Grace, J.B. & McNaughton, S.J. (2007a) Forage nutritive quality in the Serengeti ecosystem: the roles of fire and herbivory. American Naturalist, 170, 343357.
  • Anderson, T.M., Hopcraft, J.G.C., Eby, S., Ritchie, M., Grace, J.B. & Olff, H. (2010) Landscape-scale analyses suggest both nutrient and antipredator advantages to Serengeti herbivore hotspots. Ecology, 91, 15191529.
  • Balme, G., Hunter, L. & Slotow, R. (2007) Feeding habitat selection by hunting leopards Panthera pardus in a woodland savanna: prey catchability versus abundance. Animal Behaviour, 74, 589598.
  • Bell, R.H.V. (1970) The use of herb layer by grazing ungulates in the Serengeti. Animal Populations in Relation to Their Food Resources (ed. A. Watson), pp. 111124. Blackwell, Oxford.
  • Bell, R.H.V. (1982) The effect of soil nutrient availability on community structure in African ecosystems. Ecology of Tropical Savannas, Vol. 42 (eds B.J. Huntley & B.H. Walker, pp. 193216. Springer-Verlag, Berlin.
  • Blair, J.M. (1997) Fire, N availability, and plant response in grasslands: a test of the transient maxima hypothesis. Ecology, 78, 23592368.
  • Bond, W.J. & Keeley, J.E. (2005) Fire as a global ‘herbivore’: the ecology and evolution of flammable ecosystems. Trends in Ecology & Evolution, 20, 387394.
  • Botkin, D.B., Mellilo, J.M. & Wu, L.S.-Y. (1981) How ecosystem processes are linked to large mammal population dynamics. Dynamics of Large Mammal Populations (eds C.W. Fowler & T.D. Smith), pp. 373387. John Wiley & Sons, New York.
  • Boyce, M.S. & McDonald, L.L. (1999) Relating populations to habitats using resource selection functions. Trends in Ecology & Evolution, 14, 268272.
  • Breman, H. & De Wit, C.T. (1983) Rangeland productivity and exploitation in the Sahel. Science, 221, 1341.
  • Clauss, M. & Hummel, J. (2005) The digestive performance of mammalian herbivores: why big may not be that much better. Mammal Review, 35, 174187.
  • Clauss, M., Frey, R., Kiefer, B., Lechner-Doll, M., Loehlein, W., Polster, C., Rossner, G.E. & Streich, W.J. (2003) The maximum attainable body size of herbivorous mammals: morphophysiological constraints on foregut, and adaptations of hindgut fermenters. Oecologia, 136, 1427.
  • Cohen, J.E., Pimm, S.L., Yodzis, P. & Saldana, J. (1993) Body sizes of animal predators and animal prey in food webs. Journal of Animal Ecology, 62, 6778.
  • Cromsigt, J.P.G.M. (2006) Large Herbivores in Space: Resource Partitioning Among Savanna Grazers in a Heterogeneous Environment. University of Groningen, Groningen.
  • Cromsigt, J. & Olff, H. (2006) Resource partitioning among savanna grazers mediated by local heterogeneity: an experimental approach. Ecology, 87, 15321541.
  • Demment, M.W. & Soest, P.J.V. (1985) A nutritional explanation for body-size patterns of ruminant and nonruminant herbivores. The American Naturalist, 125, 641.
  • Dobson, A.P., Borner, M., Sinclair, A.R.E., Hudson, P.J., Anderson, T.M., Bigurube, G., Davenport, T.B.B., Deutsch, J., Durant, S.M., Estes, R.D., Estes, A.B., Fryxell, J., Foley, C., Gadd, M.E., Haydon, D., Holdo, R., Holt, R.D., Homewood, K., Hopcraft, J.G.C., Hilborn, R., Jambiya, G.L.K., Laurenson, M.K., Melamari, L., Morindat, A.O., Ogutu, J.O., Schaller, G. & Wolanski, E. (2010) Road will ruin Serengeti. Nature, 467, 272273.
  • Elliott, J.P., Cowan, I.M. & Holling, C.S. (1977) Prey capture by the African lion. Canadian Journal of Zoology, 55, 18111828.
  • Foose, T.J. (1982) Trophic Strategies of Ruminant Versus Nonruminant Ungulates. University of Chicago, Chicago.
  • Fortin, M.J. & Dale, M.R.T. (2005) Spatial Analysis: A Guide for Ecologists. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
  • Fritz, H. & Duncan, P. (1994) On the carrying-capacity for large ungulates of African savanna ecosystems. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B Biological Sciences, 256, 7782.
  • Fritz, H., Duncan, P., Gordon, I.J. & Illius, A.W. (2002) Megaherbivores influence trophic guilds structure in African ungulate communities. Oecologia, 131, 620625.
  • Fryxell, J.M. (1995) Aggregation and migration by grazing ungulates in relation to resources and predators. Serengeti II: Dynamics, Management, and Conservation of an Ecosystem (eds A.R.E. Sinclair & P. Arcese), pp. 257273. University of Chicago Press, Chicago.
  • Fryxell, J.M., Wilmshurst, J.F., Sinclair, A.R.E., Haydon, D.T., Holt, R.D. & Abrams, P.A. (2005) Landscape scale, heterogeneity, and the viability of Serengeti grazers. Ecology Letters, 8, 328335.
  • Fryxell, J.M., Mosser, A., Sinclair, A.R.E. & Packer, C. (2007) Group formation stabilizes predator-prey dynamics. Nature, 449, 10411044.
  • Gordon, I.J. & Illius, A.W. (1996a) The nutritional ecology of African ruminants: a reinterpretation. Journal of Animal Ecology, 65, 1828.
  • Gordon, I.J., Illius, A.W. & Milne, J.D. (1996b) Sources of variation in the foraging efficiency of grazing ruminants. Functional Ecology, 10, 219226.
  • Grace, J.B. (2006) Structural Equation Modeling and Natural Systems. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
  • Grace, J.B. & Bollen, K.A. (2008) Representing general theoretical concepts in structural equation models: the role of composite variables. Environmental and Ecological Statistics, 15, 191213.
  • Grace, J.B., Anderson, T.M., Olff, H. & Scheiner, S. (2010) On the specification of structural equation models for ecological systems. Ecological Monographs, 80, 6787.
  • Hay, C.T., Cross, P.C. & Funston, P.J. (2008) Trade-offs of predation and foraging explain sexual segregation in African buffalo. Journal of Animal Ecology, 77, 850858.
  • Hebblewhite, M. & Merrill, E.H. (2009) Trade-offs between predation risk and forage differ between migrant strategies in a migratory ungulate. Ecology, 90, 34453454.
  • Hebblewhite, M., Merrill, E.H. & McDonald, T.L. (2005) Spatial decomposition of predation risk using resource selection functions: an example in a wolf-elk predator-prey system. Oikos, 111, 101111.
  • Hengl, T., Heuvelink, G.B.M. & Rossiter, D.G. (2007) About regression-kriging: from equations to case studies. Computers & Geosciences, 33, 13011315.
  • Hopcraft, J.G.C., Olff, H. & Sinclair, A.R.E. (2010) Herbivores, resources and risks: alternating regulation along primary environmental gradients in savannas. Trends in Ecology & Evolution, 25, 119128.
  • Hopcraft, J.G.C., Sinclair, A.R.E. & Packer, C. (2005) Planning for success: serengeti lions seek prey accessibility rather than abundance. Journal of Animal Ecology, 74, 559566.
  • Illius, A.W. & Gordon, I.J. (1992) Modeling the nutritional ecology of ungulate herbivores: evolution of body size and competitive interactions. Oecologia, 89, 428434.
  • Jarman, P.J. (1974) Social-organization of antelope in relation to their ecology. Behaviour, 48, 215.
  • Kauffman, M.J., Varley, N., Smith, D.W., Stahler, D.R., MacNulty, D.R. & Boyce, M.S. (2007) Landscape heterogeneity shapes predation in a newly restored predator–prey system. Ecology Letters, 10, 690700.
  • Kinahan, A.A., Pimm, S.L. & van Aarde, R.J. (2007) Ambient temperature as a determinant of landscape use in the savanna elephant (Loxodonta africana). Journal of Thermal Biology, 32, 4758.
  • Kline, R.B. (2005) Principles and Practice of Structural Equation Modeling, 2nd edn. The Guilford Press, London.
  • Laca, E.A., Sokolow, S., Galli, J.R. & Cangiano, C.A. (2010) Allometry and spatial scales of foraging in mammalian herbivores. Ecology Letters, 13, 311320.
  • Lawton, J.H. & McNeill, S. (1979) Between the devil and the deep blue sea: on the problem of being a herbivore. Population Dynamics. Symposium of the British Ecological Society, Vol 20 (eds R.M. Anderson, B.D. Turner & L.R. Taylor), pp. 223244. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
  • Manly, B.F.J., McDonald, L., Thomas, D.L., McDonald, T.L. & Erickson, W.P. (2002) Resource Selection by Animals: Statistical Design and Analysis for Field Studies, 2nd edn. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Boston.
  • McNaughton, S.J., Tarrants, J.L., McNaughton, M.M. & Davis, R.H. (1985) Silica as a defense against herbivory and a growth promotor in African grasses. Ecology, 66, 528535.
  • Murray, M.G. (1993) Comparative nutrition of wildebeest, hartebeest and topi in the Serengeti. African Journal of Ecology, 31, 172177.
  • Murray, M.G. & Brown, D. (1993) Niche separation of grazing ungulates in the Serengeti: an experimental test. Journal of Animal Ecology, 62, 380389.
  • Oksanen, L., Fretwell, S.D., Arruda, J. & Niemela, P. (1981) Exploitation ecosystems in gradients of primary productivity. American Naturalist, 118, 240261.
  • Olff, H. & Hopcraft, J.G.C. (2008) The resource basis of human–wildlife interaction. Serengeti III: Human Impacts on Ecosystem Dynamics (eds A.R.E. Sinclair, J.M. Fryxell & C. Packer). Chicago University Press, Chicago, 95133.
  • Olff, H., Ritchie, M.E. & Prins, H.H.T. (2002) Global environmental controls of diversity in large herbivores. Nature, 415, 901904.
  • Owen-Smith, N. (1988) Megaherbivores: The Influence of Very Large Body Size On Ecology. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
  • Owen-Smith, N. & Mills, M.G.L. (2008) Shifting prey selection generates contrasting herbivore dynamics within a large-mammal predator-prey web. Ecology, 89, 11201133.
  • Reed, D., Anderson, T.M., Dempewolf, J., Metzger, K. & Serneels, S. (2008) The spatial distribution of vegetation types in the Serengeti ecosystem: the influence of rainfall and topographic relief on vegetation patch characteristics. Journal of Biogeography, 36, 770782
  • Ritchie, M.E. & Olff, H. (1999) Spatial scaling laws yield a synthetic theory of biodiversity. Nature, 400, 557560.
  • Scheel, D. (1993) Watching for lions in the grass: the usefulness of scanning and its effects during hunts. Animal Behaviour, 46, 695704.
  • Scheel, D. & Packer, C. (1991) Group hunting behaviour of lions: a search for cooperation. Animal Behaviour, 41, 697709.
  • Shipley, L.A., Gross, J.E., Spalinger, D.E., Hobbs, N.T. & Wunder, B.A. (1994) The scaling of intake rate in mammalian herbivores. American Naturalist, 143, 10551082.
  • Sinclair, A.R.E. (1977) The African Buffalo: A Study of Resource Limitation of Populations. University of Chicago Press, Chicago.
  • Sinclair, A.R.E. (1985) Does interspecific competition or predation shape the african ungulate community. Journal of Animal Ecology, 54, 899918.
  • Sinclair, A.R.E. & Arcese, P. (1995) Population consequences of predation-sensitive foraging: the Serengeti wildebeest. Ecology, 76, 882891.
  • Sinclair, A.R.E., Mduma, S. & Brashares, J.S. (2003) Patterns of predation in a diverse predator-prey system. Nature, 425, 288290.
  • Sinclair, A.R.E., Packer, C., Mduma, S.A.R. & Fryxell, J.M., eds. (2008) Serengeti III: Human Impacts on Ecosystem Dynamics, p. 522. University of Chicago Press, Chicago.
  • van Soest, P.J. (1996) Allometry and ecology of feeding behavior and digestive capacity in herbivores: a review. Zoo Biology, 15, 455479.
  • Valeix, M., Fritz, H., Loveridge, A.J., Davidson, Z., Hunt, J.E., Murindagomo, F. & Macdonald, D.W. (2009a) Does the risk of encountering lions influence African herbivore behaviour at waterholes? Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology, 63, 14831494.
  • Valeix, M., Loveridge, A.J., Chamaille-Jammes, S., Davidson, Z., Murindagomo, F., Fritz, H. & Macdonald, D.W. (2009b) Behavioral adjustments of African herbivores to predation risk by lions: spatiotemporal variations influence habitat use. Ecology, 90, 2330.
  • Wilmshurst, J.F., Fryxell, J.M. & Bergman, C.M. (2000) The allometry of patch selection in ruminants. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B Biological Sciences, 267, 345349.
  • Wilmshurst, J.F., Fryxell, J.M. & Colucci, P.E. (1999) What constrains daily intake in Thomson’s gazelles? Ecology, 80, 23382347.