SEARCH

SEARCH BY CITATION

References

  • Ariño, A. & Pimm, S. (1995) On the nature of population extremes. Evolutionary Ecology, 9, 429443.
  • Barber-Meyer, S.M., Mech, L.D. & White, P.J. (2008) Elk calf survival and mortality following wolf restoration to Yellowstone National Park. Wildlife Monographs, 169, 130.
  • Boyce, M.S., Sinclair, A.R.E. & White, G.C. (1999) Seasonal compensation of predation and harvesting. Oikos, 87, 419426.
  • Bronson, F.H. (1989) Mammalian Reproductive Biology. The University of Chicago Press, Chicago, Illinois, USA.
  • Coughenour, M.B. & Singer, F.J. (1996) Elk population processes in Yellowstone National Park under the policy of natural regulation. Ecological Applications, 6, 573593.
  • Griffin, K.A., Hebblewhite, M., Robinson, H.S., Zager, P., Barber-Meyer, S.M., Christianson, D., Creel, S., Harris, N.C., Hurley, M.A., Jackson, D.H., Johnson, B.K., Myers, W.L., Raithel, J.D., Schlegel, M., Smith, B.L., White, C. & White, P.J. (2011) Neonatal mortality of elk driven by climate, predator phenology and predator community composition. Journal of Animal Ecology, 80, 12461257.
  • Hebblewhite, M., Paquet, P.C., Pletscher, D.H., Lessard, R.B. & Callaghan, C.J. (2003) Development and application of a ratio estimator to estimate wolf kill rates and variance in a multiple-prey system. Wildlife Society Bulletin, 31, 933946.
  • Houston, D.B. (1982) The Northern Yellowstone elk: Ecology and Management. MacMillan, New York, New York, USA.
  • Husseman, J.S., Murray, D.L., Power, G., Mack, C., Wenger, C.R. & Quigley, H. (2003) Assessing differential prey selection patterns between two sympatric large carnivores. Oikos, 101, 591601.
  • Jedrzejewski, W., Schmidt, K., Theuerkauf, J., Jedrzejewska, B., Selva, N., Zub, K. & Szymura, L. (2002) Kill rates and predation by wolves on ungulate populations in Bialowieza Primeval Forest (Poland). Ecology, 83, 13411356.
  • Kamischke, E. (2007) Estimation of Kill Rates by Yellowstone Wolves. MS Thesis, Michigan Technological University, Houghton, Michigan, USA.
  • Knopff, K.H., Knopff, A.A., Warren, M.B. & Boyce, M.S. (2009) Evaluating global positioning system telemetry techniques for estimating cougar predation parameters. The Journal of Wildlife Management, 73, 586597.
  • Knopff, K.H., Knopff, A.A., Kortello, A. & Boyce, M.S. (2010) Cougar kill rate and prey composition in a multiprey system. The Journal of Wildlife Management, 74, 14351447.
  • Korpimaki, E. & Norrdahl, K. (1991) Numerical and functional responses of kestrels, short-eared owls, and long-eared owls to vole densities. Ecology, 72, 814826.
  • Mech, L.D. & Peterson, R.O. (2003) Wolf-prey relations. Wolves: Behavior, Ecology, and Conservation (eds L.D. Mech & L. Boitani), pp. 131160. University of Chicago Press, Chicago, Illinois, USA.
  • Mech, L.D., Smith, D.W., Murphy, K.M. & MacNulty, D.R. (2001) Winter severity and wolf predation on a formerly wolf-free elk herd. The Journal of Wildlife Management, 65, 9981003.
  • Messier, F. (1994) Ungulate population models with predation: a case study with the North American moose. Ecology, 75, 478488.
  • Metz, M.C., Vucetich, J.A., Smith, D.W., Stahler, D.R. & Peterson, R.O. (2011) Effect of sociality and season on gray wolf (Canis lupus) foraging behavior: implications for estimating summer kill rate. PLoS ONE, 6, e17332.
  • Millon, A. & Bretagnolle, V. (2008) Predator population dynamics under a cyclic prey regime: numerical responses, demographic parameters and growth rates. Oikos, 117, 15001510.
  • Nilsen, E.B., Linnell, J.D.C., Odden, J. & Andersen, R. (2009) Climate, season, and social status modulate the functional response of an efficient stalking predator: the Eurasian lynx. Journal of Animal Ecology, 78, 741751.
  • O’Donoghue, M., Boutin, S., Krebs, C.J., Zuleta, G., Murray, D.L. & Hofer, E. (1998) Functional responses of coyotes and lynx to the snowshoe hare cycle. Ecology, 79, 11931208.
  • Owen-Smith, N. (2008) Changing vulnerability to predation related to season and sex in an African ungulate assemblage. Oikos, 117, 602610.
  • Owen-Smith, N. & Mills, M.G.L. (2008) Predator-prey size relationships in an African large-mammal food web. Journal of Animal Ecology, 77, 173183.
  • Parker, K.L., Barboza, P.S. & Gillingham, M.P. (2009) Nutrition integrates environmental responses of ungulates. Functional Ecology, 23, 5769.
  • Peterson, R.O. (1977) Wolf Ecology and Prey Relationships on Isle Royale. US National Park Service Scientific Monograph Series No. 11, US Department of the Interior, National Park Service, Washington, DC.
  • Pole, A., Gordon, I.J., Gorman, M.L. & MacAskill, M. (2004) Prey selection by African wild dogs (Lycaon pictus) in southern Zimbabwe. Journal of Zoology, 262, 207215.
  • Post, E., Peterson, R.O., Stenseth, N.C. & McLaren, B.E. (1999) Ecosystem consequences of wolf behavioural response to climate. Nature, 401, 905907.
  • Ransom, A.B. (1965) Kidney and marrow fat as indicators of white-tailed deer condition. The Journal of Wildlife Management, 29, 397398.
  • Sand, H., Wabakken, P., Zimmermann, B., Johansson, O., Pedersen, H.C. & Liberg, O. (2008) Summer kill rates and predation pattern in a wolf-moose system: can we rely on winter estimates? Oecologia, 156, 5364.
  • Smith, D.W. & Bangs, E.E. (2009) Reintroduction of wolves to Yellowstone National Park: history, values, and ecosystem restoration. Reintroduction of Top-Order Predators (eds M.W. Hayward & M. Somers), pp. 92125. Wiley-Blackwell, Hoboken, New Jersey, USA.
  • Smith, D.W., Drummer, T.D., Murphy, K.M., Guernsey, D.S. & Evans, S.B. (2004) Winter prey selection and estimation of wolf kill rates in Yellowstone National Park, 1995–2000. The Journal of Wildlife Management, 68, 153166.
  • Taylor, R.J. (1984) Predation. Chapman and Hall, New York, New York, USA.
  • Visser, M.E., Holleman, L.J.M. & Gienapp, P. (2006) Shifts in caterpillar biomass phenology due to climate change and its impact on the breeding biology of an insectivorous bird. Oecologia, 147, 164172.
  • Vucetich, J.A. & Peterson, R.O. (2004) The influence of prey consumption and demographic stochasticity on population growth rate of Isle Royale wolves Canis lupus. Oikos, 107, 309320.
  • Vucetich, J.A., Peterson, R.O. & Nelson, M.P. (2010) Will the future of wolves and moose always differ from our sense of their past? The World of Wolves: New Perspectives on Ecology, Behavior and Management (eds M. Musiani, L. Boitani & P.C. Paquet), pp. 123154. University of Calgary Press, Calgary.
  • Vucetich, J.A., Hebblewhite, M., Smith, D.W. & Peterson, R.O. (2011) Predicting prey population dynamics from kill rate, predation rate, and predator-prey ratios in three wolf-ungulate systems. Journal of Animal Ecology, 80, 12361245.
  • White, P.J. & Garrott, R.A. (2005) Yellowstone’s ungulates after wolves – expectations, realizations, and predictions. Biological Conservation, 125, 141152.
  • Wilmers, C.C., Crabtree, R.L., Smith, D.W., Murphy, K.M. & Getz, W.M. (2003) Trophic facilitation by introduced top predators: grey wolf subsidies to scavengers in Yellowstone National Park. Journal of Animal Ecology, 72, 909916.