As a service to our authors and readers, this journal provides supporting information supplied by the authors. Such materials may be re-organized for online delivery, but are not copy-edited or typeset. Technical support issues arising from supporting information (other than missing files) should be addressed to the authors.

jane2023-sup-0001-AppendixS1.xlsapplication/msexcel83KAppendix S1. Operophtera brumata outbreaks by decade and geographical position, with references.
jane2023-sup-0002-AppendixS2.xlsapplication/msexcel47KAppendix S2. Operophtera brumata outbreaks by distances to baselines.
jane2023-sup-0003-AppendixS3.xlsapplication/msexcel85KAppendix S3. France, trap data for Operophtera brumata 1990–2005.
jane2023-sup-0004-FigS1-S4.pdfapplication/PDF6037KFig. S1. Map of France showing trapping plots and strips. Fig. S2. Progress of Operophtera brumata outbreaks in France 1990–2005. Fig. S3. Maps of the Netherlands showing heavy, moderate and light defoliation by Operophtera brumata in the 1990s. Fig. S4. Map showing biogeographical zonation of Europe.

Please note: Wiley Blackwell is not responsible for the content or functionality of any supporting information supplied by the authors. Any queries (other than missing content) should be directed to the corresponding author for the article.