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Appendix S1. Criteria for scoring litter sizes and litter survival as 0 pups.

Appendix S2. Maternity assignment in packs with multiple breeding females.

Appendix S3. Analysis of nonlinear effects.

Table S1. Best-fit GLMM model of age-specific change in body mass (kg) for female wolves (= 172) in Yellowstone National Park, 1995–2010. Age_1 is the slope before 0·75 years-old, age_2 is the slope between 0.75 and 2.75 years-old, and age_3 is the slope beyond 2·75 years-old.

Table S2. A priori candidate GLMM models for the effects of age (years) on female wolf body mass (kg) (= 172 female wolves, 238 observations). Variables age_1, age_2, and age_3 contain a linear spline for age at the indicated breakpoint(s).

Table S3. A priori candidate GLMM models for identifying the form of the relationship between female age (years) and litter size following den emergence (= 51 breeding females, 126 litters).

Table S4. A priori candidate GLMM models for identifying the form of the relationship between adult pack size and litter size following den emergence (= 51 breeding females, 126 litters).

Table S5. A priori candidate GLMM models for confirming the form of the relationship between female age (years) and litter size following den emergence (= 51 breeding females, 126 litters).

Table S6. A priori candidate GLMM models for confirming the form of the relationship between adult pack size and litter size following den emergence (= 51 breeding females, 126 litters).

Table S7. A priori candidate GLMM models for identifying the form of the relationship between female age (years) and litter survival to independence (= 54 breeding females, 136 litters).

Table S8. A priori candidate GLMM models for identifying the form of the relationship between adult pack size and litter survival to independence (= 54 breeding females, 136 litters).

Table S9. A priori candidate GLMM models for confirming the form of the relationship between female age (years) and litter survival to independence (= 54 breeding females, 136 litters).

Table S10. A priori candidate GLMM models for confirming the form of the relationship between adult pack size and litter survival to independence (= 54 breeding females, 136 litters).

Table S11. Summary of predictions and results regarding the effects of individual-, group-, and population-level factors on annual reproductive success (litter size at den emergence, pup survival to independence) in female gray wolves of Yellowstone National Park, 1996–2009.

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