SEARCH

SEARCH BY CITATION

References

  • Anonymous (2001) S-Plus 6 for Windows User's Guide. Insightful, Seattle, WA.
  • Atkinson, M.D. (1992) Biological flora of the British Isles. Betula pendula Roth (B. verrucosa Ehrh.) and B. pubescens Ehrh. Journal of Ecology, 80, 837870.
  • Bokdam, J. & Gleichman, J.M. (2000) Effects of grazing by free-ranging cattle on vegetation dynamics in a continental north-west European heathland. Journal of Applied Ecology, 37, 415431.
  • Briske, D.D., Fuhlendorf, S.D. & Smeins, F.E. (2003) Vegetation dynamics on rangelands: a critique of the current paradigms. Journal of Applied Ecology, 40, 601614.
  • Bullock, J.M. & Webb, N.R. (1995) Responses to severe fires in heathland mosaics in southern England. Biological Conservation, 73, 207214.
  • Chapman, S.B. (1967) Nutrient budgets for a dry heath ecosystem in the south of England. Journal of Ecology, 55, 677689.
  • Chapman, S.B., Rose, R.J. & Basanta, M. (1989) Phosphorus adsorption by soils from heathlands in southern England in relation to successional change. Journal of Applied Ecology, 26, 673680.
  • Chapman, S.B., Rose, R.J. & Clarke, R.T. (1989) A model of the phosphorus dynamics of Calluna heathland. Journal of Ecology, 77, 3548.
  • Crawley, M.J. (2002) Statistical Computing: An Introduction to Data Analysis Using S+. Wiley, Chichester, UK.
  • Gong, W.K. & Gimingham, C.H. (1984) Birch regeneration in heath vegetation. Proceedings of the Royal Society of Edinburgh, 85B, 7381.
  • Harrison, C.M. (1976) Heathland management in Surrey, England. Biological Conservation, 10, 21220.
  • Hester, A.J., Miles, J. & Gimingham, C.H. (1991a) Succession from heather moorland to birch woodland. I. Experimental alteration of specific environmental conditions in the field. Journal of Ecology, 79, 303315.
  • Hester, A.J., Miles, J. & Gimingham, C.H. (1991b) Succession from heather moorland to birch woodland. II. Growth and competition between Vaccinium myrtillus, Deschampsia flexuosa and Agrostis capillaris. Journal of Ecology, 79, 317328.
  • Jones, C.G., Lawton, J.H. & Shachak, M. (1997) Positive and negative effects of organisms as physical ecosystem engineers. Ecology, 78, 19461957.
  • Manning, P. (2002) Determinants of Betula spp. invasion of lowland heath. PhD Thesis. University of Liverpool, Liverpool, UK.
  • Manning, P., Putwain, P.D. & Webb, N.R. (2004) Identifying and modelling the determinants of woody plant invasion of lowland heath. Journal of Ecology, 92, 868881.
  • Marrs, R.H. (1986) The role of catastrophic death of Calluna in heathland dynamics. Vegetatio, 66, 109115.
  • Miles, J. (1974) Experimental establishment of new species from seed in callunetum in north-east Scotland. Journal of Ecology, 62, 675687.
  • Mitchell, R.J., Marrs, R.H., Le Duc, M.G. & Auld, M.H.D. (1997) A study of succession on lowland heaths in Dorset, southern England: changes in vegetation and soil chemical properties. Journal of Applied Ecology, 34, 14261444.
  • Mitchell, R.J., Marrs, R.H., Le Duc, M.G. & Auld, M.H.D. (1999) A study of the restoration of heathland on successional sites: changes in vegetation and soil chemical properties. Journal of Applied Ecology, 36, 770783.
  • Petraitis, P.S. & Latham, R.E. (1999) The importance of scale in testing the origins of alternative community states. Ecology, 80, 429442.
  • Pickess, B.P., Burgess, N.D. & Evans, C. (1992) The management of lowland heath from 1966 to 1989 at Arne nature reserve, Dorset, UK. Proceedings of the Dorset Natural History and Archaeological Society, 114, 227232.
  • Pote, D.H., Daniel, T.C., Sharpley, A.N., Moore, P.A., Edwards, D.R. & Nichols, D.J. (1996) Relating extractable soil phosphorus to phosphorus losses in runoff. Soil Science Society of America Journal, 60, 855859.
  • Rodwell, J.S. (1992) British Plant Communities. Volume 2. Mires and Heaths. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK.
  • Rose, R.J., Webb, N.R., Clarke, R.T. & Traynor, C.H. (1999) Changes on the heathlands in Dorset, England, between 1987 and 1996. Biological Conservation, 93, 117125.
  • Rossi, R.E., Mualla, D.J., Jarne, A.G. & Franz, E.H. (1992) Geostatistical tools for modelling and interpreting ecological spatial dependence. Ecological Monographs, 62, 277314.
  • Scheffer, M., Carpenter, S., Foley, J.A., Folke, C. & Walker, B. (2001) Catastrophic shifts in ecosystems. Nature, 413, 591596.
  • Suding, K.N., Gross, K.L. & Houseman, G.R. (2004) Alternative states and positive feedbacks in restoration ecology. Trends in Ecology and Evolution, 19, 4653.
  • Thompson, K., Bakker, J.P. & Bekker, R.M. (1997) The Soil Seedbanks of North West Europe: Methodology, Density and Longevity. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK.
  • Watt, A.S. (1947) Pattern and process in the plant community. Journal of Ecology, 35, 122.
  • Wilson, J.B. & Agnew, A.D.Q. (1992) Positive-feedback switches in plant communities. Advances in Ecological Research, 23, 263336.