SEARCH

SEARCH BY CITATION

References

  • Bengtsson, J., Ahnström, J. & Weibull, A.-C. (2005) The effects of organic agriculture on biodiversity and abundance: a meta-analysis. Journal of Applied Ecology, 42, 261269.
  • Benton, T.G., Vickery, J.A. & Wilson, J.D. (2003) Farmland biodiversity: is habitat heterogeneity the key? Trends in Ecology and Evolution, 18, 182188.
  • Boggs, C.L. (2003) Environmental variation, life histories, and allocation. Butterflies: Ecology and Evolution Taking Flight (eds C.L.Boggs, W.B.Watt & P.R.Ehrlich), pp. 185206. The University of Chicago Press, Chicago and London.
  • CAC (1999) Guidelines for the Production, Processing, Labelling and Marketing of Organically Produced Foods. CAC/GL 32–1999. FAO/WHO, Rome, Italy.
  • Cowley, M.J.R., Thomas, C.D., Wilson, R.J., Leon-Cortes, J.L., Gutierrez, D. & Bulman, C.R. (2001) Density–distribution relationships in British butterflies. II. An assessment of mechanisms. Journal of Animal Ecology, 70, 426441.
  • Davis, B.N.K., Lakhani, K.H., Yates, T.J. & Frost, A.J. (1991) Bioassays of insecticide spray drift: the effects of wind speed on the mortality of Pieris brassicae larvae (Lepidoptera) caused by difubenzuron. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment, 36, 141149.
  • DEFRA (2005) Organic Entry Level Stewardship Handbook. Terms and Conditions and How to Apply. DEFRA, London, UK.
  • Dover, J.W. (1997) Conservation headlands: effects on butterfly distribution and behaviour. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment, 63, 3149.
  • Feber, R.E., Firbank, L.G., Johnson, P.J. & Macdonald, D.W. (1997) The effects of organic farming on pest and non-pest butterfly abundance. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment, 64, 133139.
  • Fox, A.D. (2004) Has Danish agriculture maintained farmland bird populations? Journal of Applied Ecology, 41, 427439.
  • Fuller, R.J., Norton, L.R., Feber, R.E., Johnson, P.J., Chamberlain, D.E., Joys, A.C., Mathews, F., Stuart, R.C., Townsend, M.C., Manley, W.J., Wolfe, M.S., Macdonald, D.W. & Firbank, L.G. (2005) Benefits of organic farming to biodiversity vary among taxa. Biology Letters, 1, 431434.
  • Green, R.E., Cornell, S.J., Scharlemann, J.P.W. & Balmford, A. (2005) Farming and the fate of wild nature. Science, 307, 550555.
  • Haughton, A.J., Champion, G.T., Hawes, C., Heard, M.S., Brooks, D.R., Bohan, D.A., Clark, S.J., Dewar, A.M., Firbank, L.G., Osborne, J.L., Perry, J.N., Rothery, P., Roy, D.B., Scott, R.J., Woiwod, I.P., Birchall, C., Skellern, M.P., Walker, J.H., Baker, P., Browne, E.L., Dewar, A.J.G., Garner, B.H., Haylock, L.A., Horne, S.L., Mason, N.S., Sands, R.J.N. & Walker, M.J. (2003) Invertebrate responses to the management of genetically modified herbicide-tolerant and conventional spring crops. II. Within-field epigeal and aerial arthropods. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London Series B: Biological Sciences, 358, 18631877.
  • Hole, D.G., Perkins, A.J., Wilson, J.D., Alexander, I.H., Grice, P.V. & Evans, A.D. (2005) Does organic farming benefit biodiversity? Biological Conservation, 122, 113130.
  • Hutton, S.A. & Giller, P.S. (2003) The effects of intensification of agriculture on northern temperate dung beetle communities. Journal of Applied Ecology, 40, 9941007.
  • IFOAM (2005) Principles of Organic Agriculture. IFOAM, Bonn, Germany. http://www.ifoam.org/organic_facts/principles/pdfs/Principles_OA_World_Board_version_for_General_Assembly.pdf, accessed 18/04/05.
  • Kells, A.R., Holland, J.M. & Goulson, D. (2001) The value of uncropped field margins for foraging bumblebees. Journal of Insect Conservation, 5, 283291.
  • Kleijn, D. & Sutherland, W.J. (2003) How effective are European agri-environment schemes in conserving and promoting biodiversity? Journal of Applied Ecology, 40, 947969.
  • Kleijn, D., Berendse, F., Smit, R. & Gilissen, N. (2001) Agri-environment schemes do not effectively protect biodiversity in Dutch agricultural landscapes. Nature, 413, 723725.
  • Kleijn, D., Berendse, F., Smit, R., Gilissen, N., Smit, J., Brak, B. & Groeneveld, R. (2004) Ecological effectiveness of agri-environment schemes in different agricultural landscapes in the Netherlands. Conservation Biology, 18, 775786.
  • Krebs, J.R., Wilson, J.D., Bradbury, R.B. & Siriwardena, G.M. (1999) The second silent spring? Nature, 400, 611612.
  • Littell, R.C., Milliken, G.A., Stroup, W.W. & Wolfinger, R.D. (1996) SAS System for mixed models. SAS Institute Inc., Cary, N.C.
  • Longley, M. & Sotherton, N.W. (1997) Factors determining the effects of pesticides upon butterflies inhabiting arable farmland. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment, 61, 112.
  • Ouin, A., Aviron, S., Dover, J. & Burel, F. (2004) Complementation/supplementation of resources for butterflies in agricultural landscapes. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment, 103, 473479.
  • Pollard, E. (1977) A method for assessing changes in abundance of butterflies. Biological Conservation, 12, 115134.
  • Purtauf, T., Roschewitz, I., Dauber, J., Thies, C., Tscharntke, T. & Wolters, V. (2005) Landscape context of organic and conventional farms: influences on carabid beetle diversity. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment, 108, 165174.
  • Pywell, R.F., Warman, E.A., Sparks, T.H., Greatorex-Davies, J.N., Walker, K.J., Meek, W.R., Carvell, C., Petit, S. & Firbank, L.G. (2004) Assessing habitat quality for butterflies on intensively managed arable farmland. Biological Conservation, 118, 313325.
  • Roschewitz, I., Gabriel, D., Tscharntke, T. & Thies, C. (2005) The effects of landscape complexity on arable weed species diversity in organic and conventional farming. Journal of Applied Ecology, 42, 873882.
  • Roschewitz, I., Thies, C. & Tscharntke, T. (2005) Are landscape complexity and farm specialisation related to land-use intensity of annual crop fields? Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment, 105, 8799.
  • SCB (2004) Yearbook of Agricultural Statistics 2004, Including Food Statistics. Statistics Sweden, Örebro, Sweden.
  • Schmidt, M.H., Roschewitz, I., Thies, C. & Tscharntke, T. (2005) Differential effects of landscape and management on diversity and density of ground-dwelling farmland spiders. Journal of Applied Ecology, 42, 281287.
  • Sheperd, S., Magnusson, M. & Sjödén, P.-O. (2005) Determinants of consumer behaviour related to organic foods. Ambio, 34, 352359.
  • De Snoo, G.R. (1999) Unsprayed field margins: effects on environment, biodiversity and agricultural practice. Landscape and Urban Planning, 46, 151160.
  • Stockdale, E.A., Lampkin, N.H., Hovi, M., Keatinge, R., Lennartsson, E.K.M., Macdonald, D.W., Padel, S., Tattersall, F.H., Wolfe, M.S. & Watson, C.A. (2001) Agronomic and environmental implications of organic farming systems. Advances in Agronomy, 70, 261327.
  • Thomas, J.A., Bourn, N.A.D., Clarke, R.T., Stewart, K.E., Simcox, D.J., Pearman, G.S., Curtis, R. & Goodger, B. (2001) The quality and isolation of habitat patches both determine where butterflies persist in fragmented landscapes. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London Series B: Biological Sciences, 268, 17911796.
  • Tilman, D., Fargione, J., Wolff, B., D’Antonio, C., Dobson, A., Howarth, R., Schindler, D., Schlesinger, W.H., Simberloff, D. & Swackhamer, D. (2001) Forecasting agriculturally driven global environmental change. Science, 292, 281284.
  • Trewavas, A. (1999) Much food, many problems. Nature, 402, 231232.
  • Tscharntke, T., Klein, A.M., Kruess, A., Steffan-Dewenter, I. & Thies, C. (2005) Landscape perspectives on agricultural intensification and biodiversity ecosystem service management. Ecology Letters, 8, 857874.
  • Tscharntke, T., Steffan-Dewenter, I., Kruess, A. & Thies, C. (2002) Contribution of small habitat fragments to conservation of insect communities of grassland–cropland landscapes. Ecological Applications, 12, 354363.
  • Tudor, O., Dennis, R.L.H., Greatorex-Davies, J.N. & Sparks, T.H. (2004) Flower preferences of woodland butterflies in the UK: nectaring specialists are species of conservation concern. Biological Conservation, 119, 397403.
  • Weibull, A.C. & Östman, Ö. (2003) Species composition in agroecosystems: the effect of landscape, habitat, and farm management. Basic and Applied Ecology, 4, 349361.
  • Weibull, A.-C., Bengtsson, J. & Nohlgren, E. (2000) Diversity of butterflies in the agricultural landscape: the role of farming system and landscape heterogeneity. Ecography, 23, 743750.
  • Wickramasinghe, L.P., Harris, S., Jones, G. & Vaughan, N. (2003) Bat activity and species richness on organic and conventional farms: impact of agricultural intensification. Journal of Applied Ecology, 40, 984993.
  • Willer, H. & Richter, T. (2004) Europe. The World of Organic Agriculture: Statistics and Emerging Trends 2004 (eds H.Willer & M.Yussefi), pp. 93121. IFOAM, Bonn, Germany.
  • Wilson, J.D., Morris, A.J., Arroyo, B.E., Clark, S.C. & Bradbury, R.B. (1999) A review of the abundance and diversity of invertebrate and plant foods of granivorous birds in northern Europe in relation to agricultural change. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment, 75, 1330.