SEARCH

SEARCH BY CITATION

References

  • Abrams, P.A. (1995) Monotonic or unimodal diversity productivity gradients: what does competition theory predict? Ecology, 76, 20192027.
  • Al-Mufti, M.M., Sydes, C.L., Furness, S.B., Grime, J.P. & Band, S.R. (1977) Quantitative analysis of shoot phenology and dominance in herbaceous vegetation. Journal of Ecology, 65, 759791.
  • Anderson, T.M., McNaughton, S.J. & Ritchie, M.E. (2004) Scale-dependent relationships between the spatial distribution of a limiting resource and plant species diversity in an African grassland ecosystem. Oecologia, 139, 277287.
  • Asner, G.P., Elmore, A.J., Olander, L.P., Martin, R.E. & Harris, A.T. (2004) Grazing systems, ecosystem responses, and global change. Annual Review of Environment and Resources, 29, 261299.
  • Baer, S.G., Blair, J.M., Collins, S.L. & Knapp, A.K. (2003) Soil resources regulate productivity and diversity in newly established tallgrass prairie. Ecology, 84, 724735.
  • Bai, Y.F., Han, X.G., Wu, J.G., Chen, Z.Z. & Li, L.H. (2004) Ecosystem stability and compensatory effects in the Inner Mongolia grassland. Nature, 431, 181184.
  • Bai, Y.F., Li, L.H., Wang, Q.B., Zhang, L.X., Zhang, Y. & Chen, Z.Z. (2000) Changes in plant species diversity and productivity along gradients of precipitation and elevation in the Xilin River Basin, Inner Mongolia. Acta Phytoecologica Sinica, 24, 667673.
  • Chalcraft, D.R., Williams, J.W., Smith, M.D. & Willig, M.R. (2004) Scale dependence in the species-richness–productivity relationship: the role of species turnover. Ecology, 85, 27012708.
  • Chapin, F.S. III, Zavaleta, E.S., Eviner, V.T., Naylor, R.L., Vitousek, P.M., Reynolds, H.L., Hooper, D.U., Lavorel, S., Sala, O.E., Hobbie, S.E., Mack, M.C. & Diaz, S. (2000) Consequences of changing biodiversity. Nature, 405, 234242.
  • Chase, J.M. & Leibold, M.A. (2002) Spatial scale dictates the productivity–biodiversity relationship. Nature, 416, 427430.
  • Chinese Academy of Sciences Integrative Expedition Team to Inner Mongolia and Ningxia (1985) The Vegetation of Inner Mongolia. Science Press, Beijing.
  • Collins, S.L. & Glenn, S.M. (1990) A hierarchical analysis of species abundance patterns in grassland vegetation. American Naturalist, 135, 633648.
  • Cornwell, W.K. & Grubb, P.J. (2003) Regional and local patterns in plant species richness with respect to resource availability. Oikos, 100, 417428.
  • Coupland, R.T. (ed.) (1992) Ecosystems of the World 8A. Natural Grasslands: Introduction and Western Hemisphere. Elsevier, Amsterdam.
  • Coupland, R.T. (ed.) (1993) Ecosystems of the World 8B. Natural Grasslands: Eastern Hemisphere and Résumé. Elsevier, Amsterdam.
  • Currie, D.J. (1991) Energy and large-scale patterns of animal- and plant-species richness. American Naturalist, 137, 2749.
  • Ellis, J.E. & Swift, D.M. (1988) Stability of African pastoral ecosystems: alternate paradigms and implications for development. Journal of Range Management, 41, 450459.
  • Evans, K.L., Warren, P.H. & Gaston, K.J. (2005) Species–energy relationships at the macroecological scale: a review of the mechanisms. Biological Reviews, 80, 125.
  • Fridley, J.D. (2002) Resource availability dominates and alters the relationship between species diversity and ecosystem productivity in experimental plant communities. Oecologia, 132, 271277.
  • Fukami, T. & Morin, P.J. (2003) Productivity–biodiversity relationships depend on the history of community assembly. Nature, 424, 423426.
  • Gaston, K.J. (2000) Global patterns in biodiversity. Nature, 405, 220227.
  • Gillman, L.N. & Wright, S.D. (2006) The influence of productivity on the species richness of plants: a critical assessment. Ecology, 87, 12341243.
  • Grace, J.B. (1999) The factors controlling species density in herbaceous plant communities: an assessment. Perspectives in Plant Ecology, Evolution and Systematics, 2, 128.
  • Grime, J.P. (1973) Competitive exclusion in herbaceous vegetation. Nature, 242, 344347.
  • Gross, K.L., Willig, M.R., Gough, L., Inouye, R. & Cox, S.B. (2000) Patterns of species density and productivity at different spatial scales in herbaceous plant communities. Oikos, 89, 417427.
  • Harrison, S., Davies, K.F., Safford, H.D. & Viers, J.H. (2006) Beta diversity and the scale-dependence of the productivity–diversity relationship: a test in the Californian serpentine flora. Journal of Ecology, 94, 110117.
  • Hawkins, B.A., Field, R., Cornell, H.V., Currie, D.J., Guégan, J.-F., Kaufman, D.M., Kerr, J.T., Mittelbach, G.G., Oberdorff, T., O’Brien, E.M., Porter, E.E. & Turner, J.R.G. (2003) Energy, water, and broad-scale geographic patterns of species richness. Ecology, 84, 31053117.
  • Hooper, D.U., Chapin, F.S. III, Ewel, J.J., Hector, A., Inchausti, P., Lavorel, S., Lawton, J.H., Lodge, D.M., Loreau, M., Naeem, S., Schmid, B., Setala, H., Symstad, A.J., Vandermeer, J. & Wardle, D.A. (2005) Effects of biodiversity on ecosystem functioning: a consensus of current knowledge. Ecological Monographs, 75, 335.
  • Huston, M.A. (1979) A general hypothesis of species diversity. American Naturalist, 113, 81101.
  • Inner Mongolia Soil Census Office & Inner Mongolia Soil and Fertilizer Service (1994) The Soils of Inner Mongolia. Science Press, Beijing.
  • Jennings, M.D., Williams, J.W. & Stromberg, M.R. (2005) Diversity and productivity of plant communities across the Inland Northwest, USA. Oecologia, 143, 607618.
  • Jiang, G.M., Han, X.G. & Wu, J.G. (2006) Restoration and management of the Inner Mongolia Grassland require a sustainable strategy. AMBIO, 35, 269270.
  • Lavrenko, E.M., Karamysheva, Z.V., Borisova, I.V., Popova, T.A., Guricheva, N.P. & Nikulina, R.I. (1993) Steppes of the former Soviet Union and Mongolia. Ecosystems of the World 8B. Natural Grasslands: Eastern Hemisphere and Résumé (ed. R.T.Coupland), pp. 355. Elsevier, Amsterdam.
  • Levin, S.A. (1992) The problem of pattern and scale in ecology. Ecology, 73, 19431967.
  • Li, Y.H. (1988) The divergence and convergence of Aneurolepidium chinense steppe and Stipa grandis steppe under the grazing influence in Xilin river valley, Inner Mongolia. Acta Phytoecologica et Geobotanica Sinica, 12, 189196.
  • Li, Y.H. (1993) Grazing dynamics of the species diversity in Aneurolepidium chinense steppe and Stipa grandis steppe. Acta Botanica Sinica, 35, 877884.
  • Loreau, M., Naeem, S. & Inchausti, P. (eds) (2002) Biodiversity and Ecosystem Functioning Synthesis and Perspectives. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
  • Ma, W.H. & Fang, J.Y. (2006) The relationship between species richness and productivity in four typical grasslands of northern China. Biodiversity Science, 14, 2128.
  • Milchunas, D.G. & Lauenroth, W.K. (1993) Quantitative effects of grazing on vegetation and soils over a global range of environments. Ecological Monographs, 63, 327366.
  • Milchunas, D.G., Sala, O.E. & Lauenroth, W.K. (1988) A generalized model of the effects of grazing by large herbivores on grassland community structure. American Naturalist, 132, 87106.
  • Mitchell-Olds, T. & Shaw, R.G. (1987) Regression analysis of natural selection: statistical inference and biological interpretation. Evolution, 41, 11491161.
  • Mittelbach, G.G., Steiner, C.F., Scheiner, S.M., Gross, K.L., Reynolds, H.L., Waide, R.B., Willig, M.R., Dodson, S.I. & Goughh, L. (2001) What is the observed relationship between species richness and productivity? Ecology, 82, 23812396.
  • Mouquet, N., Moore, J.L. & Loreau, M. (2002) Plant species richness and community productivity: why the mechanism that promotes coexistence matters. Ecology Letters, 5, 5665.
  • Ninyerola, M., Pons, X. & Roure, J.M. (2000) A methodological approach of climatological modelling of air temperature and precipitation through GIS techniques. International Journal of Climatology, 20, 18231841.
  • O’Connor, T.G. (2005) Influence of land use on plant community composition and diversity in Highland Sourveld grassland in the southern Drakensberg, South Africa. Journal of Applied Ecology, 42, 975988.
  • O’Neill, R.V., DeAngelis, D.L., Waide, J.B. & Allen, T.F.H. (1986) A Hierarchical Concept of Ecosystems. Princeton University Press, Princeton.
  • Oksanen, J. (1996) Is the humped relationship between species richness and biomass an artefact due to plot size? Journal of Ecology, 84, 293295.
  • Olff, H. & Ritchie, M.E. (1998) Effects of herbivores on grassland plant diversity. Trends in Ecology and Evolution, 13, 261265.
  • Pickett, S.T.A., Wu, J. & Cadenasso, M.L. (1999) Patch dynamics and the ecology of disturbed ground. Ecosystems of the World 16: Ecosystems of Disturbed Ground (ed. L.R.Walker), pp. 707722. Elsevier, Amsterdam.
  • Ritchie, M.E. & Olff, H. (1999) Spatial scaling laws yield a synthetic theory of biodiversity. Nature, 400, 557560.
  • Rosenzweig, M.L. (1992) Species diversity gradients: we know more and less than we thought. Journal of Mammalogy, 73, 715730.
  • Rosenzweig, M.L. & Abramsky, Z. (1993) How are diversity and productivity related? Species Diversity in Ecological Communities: Historical and Geographical Perspectives (eds R.E.Ricklefs & D.Schluter), pp. 5265. University of Chicago Press, Chicago.
  • Sala, O.E. & Austin, A.T. (2000) Methods of estimating aboveground net primary productivity. Methods in Ecosystem Science (eds O.E.Sala, R.B.Jackson, H.A.Mooney & R.W.Howarth), pp. 3143. Springer, New York, USA.
  • Sala, O.E., Chapin, F.S., Armesto, J.J., Berlow, E., Bloomfield, J., Dirzo, R., Huber-Sanwald, E., Huenneke, L.F., Jackson, R.B., Kinzig, A., Leemans, R., Lodge, D.M., Mooney, H.A., Oesterheld, M., Poff, N.L., Sykes, M.T., Walker, B.H., Walker, M. & Wall, D.H. (2000) Global biodiversity scenarios for the year 2100. Science, 287, 17701774.
  • Steiner, C.F. & Leibold, M.A. (2004) Cyclic assembly trajectories and scale-dependent productivity–diversity relationships. Ecology, 85, 107113.
  • Taylor, D.R., Aarssen, L.W. & Loehle, C. (1990) On the relationship between r/K selection and environmental carrying capacity: a new habitat templet for plant life history strategies. Oikos, 58, 239250.
  • Tilman, D. (1982) Resource Competition and Community Structure. Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ.
  • Tilman, D. (1999) The ecological consequences of changes in biodiversity: a search for general principles. Ecology, 80, 14551474.
  • Tilman, D. & Pacala, S. (1993) The maintenance of species richness in plant communities. Species Diversity in Ecological Communities: Historical and Geographical Perspectives (eds R.E.Ricklefs & D.Schluter), pp. 1325. University of Chicago Press, Chicago.
  • US National Research Council (1992) Grasslands and Grassland Sciences in Northern China. National Academy Press, Washington, DC.
  • Vitousek, P.M. & Howarth, R.W. (1991) Nitrogen limitation on land and in the sea: how can it occur. Biogeochemistry, 13, 87115.
  • Waide, R.B., Willig, M.R., Steiner, C.F., Mittelbach, G., Gough, L., Dodson, S.I., Juday, G.P. & Parmenter, R. (1999) The relationship between productivity and species richness. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics, 30, 257300.
  • Weiher, E. (1999) The combined effects of scale and productivity on species richness. Journal of Ecology, 87, 10051011.
  • Weiher, E. & Howe, A. (2003) Scale-dependence of environmental effects on species richness in oak savannas. Journal of Vegetation Science, 14, 917920.
  • Whittaker, R.J. & Heegaard, E. (2003) What is the observed relationship between species richness and productivity? [Comment]. Ecology, 84, 33843390.
  • Worm, B., Lotze, H.K., Hillebrand, H. & Sommer, U. (2002) Consumer versus resource control of species diversity and ecosystem functioning. Nature, 417, 848851.
  • Wu, J. (1999) Hierarchy and scaling: extrapolating information along a scaling ladder. Canadian Journal of Remote Sensing, 25, 367380.
  • Wu, J. (2006) Landscape ecology, cross-disciplinarity, and sustainability science. Landscape Ecology, 21, 14.
  • Wu, J.G. & Levin, S.A. (1994) A spatial patch dynamic modeling approach to pattern and process in an annual grassland. Ecological Monographs, 64, 447464.
  • Wu, J. & Loucks, O.L. (1992) Xilingole grassland. Grasslands and Grassland Sciences in Northern China (ed. US National Research Council), pp. 6784. National Academy Press, Washington, DC.
  • Wu, J. & Loucks, O.L. (1995) From balance-of-nature to hierarchical patch dynamics: a paradigm shift in ecology. Quarterly Review of Biology, 70, 439466.