Funding was provided by the Alberta Conservation Association, Alberta Cooperative Conservation Research Unit, Alberta Enhanced Career Development, Alberta Sustainable Resource Development, the Andrew Stewart Memorial Prize, the Bill Shostak Wildlife Award, Canon National Parks Science Scholarship for the Americas award to MH, Centre for Mathematical Biology, Challenge Grants in Biodiversity, Foothills Model Forest, Foundation for North American Wild Sheep, Mountain Equipment Co-op Environment fund, NSERC-CRO grant no. 261091-02, Parks Canada, Rocky Mountain Elk Foundation, Sundre Forest Products Limited, Weyerhauser Inc., and the University of Alberta. We thank the staff and biologists of the Ya Ha Tinda ranch, Parks Canada, and Alberta Fish and Wildlife. For animal capture services, we thank T. Shury (DVM) and C.Wilson and T. Vandenbrink of Bighorn helicopters, and M. Dupuis for safe fixed wing telemetry monitoring. We thank the numerous field assistants for invaluable help during this study, especially C. Mueller, L. Thurston, H. Spaedtke, and H. Keta. Finally, we thank H. Beyer, S. Boutin, S. Nielsen, C. Aldridge, C. Gillies, C. Cassady-St.Clair, J. Frair, C. Gates, C. Jerde, F. Messier, L. Morgantini, D. Simader and C. White for helpful discussion and reviews of past drafts of this manuscript.