SEARCH

SEARCH BY CITATION

References

  • Adams, M., Ineson, P., Binkley, D., Cadisch, G., Tokuchi, N., Scholes, M. & Hicks, K. (2004) Soil functional responses to excess nitrogen inputs at global scale. Ambio, 33, 530536.
  • Allen, S.E. (1989) Chemical Analysis of Ecological Materials. Blackwell, Oxford, UK.
  • Anonymous (1995) Biodiversity: The UK Steering Group Report. HMSO, London.
  • Bakker, J.P. & Berendse, F. (1999) Constraints in the restoration of ecological diversity in grassland and heathland communities. Trends in Ecology & Evolution, 14, 6368.
  • Bakker, J.P., Grootjans, A.P., Hermy, M. & Poschlod, P. (2000) How to define targets for ecological restoration? – Introduction. Applied Vegetation Science, 3, 36.
  • Bakker, J.P., Olff, H., Willems, J.H. & Zobel, M. (1996) Why do we need permanent plots in the study of long-term vegetation dynamics? Journal of Vegetation Science, 7, 147156.
  • Bradshaw, A.D. (1983) The reconstruction of ecosystems: presidential address to the British Ecological Society, December 1982. Journal of Applied Ecology, 20, 117.
  • Critchley, C.N.R., Burke, M.J.W. & Stevens, D.P. (2003) Conservation of lowland semi-natural grasslands in the UK: a review of botanical monitoring results from agri-environment schemes. Biological Conservation, 115, 263278.
  • Critchley, C.N.R., Chambers, B.J., Fowbert, J.A., Bhogal, A., Rose, S.C. & Sanderson, R.A. (2002a) Plant species richness, functional type and soil properties of grasslands and allied vegetation in English Environmentally Sensitive Areas. Grass and Forage Science, 57, 8292.
  • Critchley, C.N.R., Chambers, B.J., Fowbert, J.A., Sanderson, R.A., Bhogal, A. & Rose, S.C. (2002b) Association between lowland grassland plant communities and soil properties. Biological Conservation, 105, 199215.
  • Defra (2005) Environmental Stewardship Farm Environment Plan Guidance 008. Available from http://www.defra.gov.uk/erdp/pdfs/es/fepgrasslandfeatures.pdf (accessed 14 March 2008).
  • Didham, R.K., Watts, C.H. & Norton, D.A. (2005) Are systems with strong underlying abiotic regimes more likely to exhibit alternative stable states? Oikos, 110, 409416.
  • Dobson, A.P., Bradshaw, A.D. & Baker, A.J. (1997) Hopes for the future: restoration ecology and conservation biology. Science, 277, 515522.
  • Edwards, A.R., Mortimer, S.R., Lawson, C.S., Westbury, D.B., Harris, S.J., Woodcock, B.A. & Brown, V.K. (2007) Hay strewing, brush harvesting of seed and soil disturbance as tools for the enhancement of botanical diversity in grasslands. Biological Conservation, 134, 372382.
  • European Union (1992) Council Directive 92/43/EEC of 21 May 1992 on the conservation of natural habitats and of wild fauna and flora. European Union Official Journal, L 206, 0070050.
  • Foster, B.L. & Tilman, D. (2000) Dynamic and static views of succession: testing the descriptive power of the chronosequence approach. Plant Ecology, 146, 110.
  • Gibson, C.W.D. & Brown, V.K. (1991) The nature and rate of development of calcareous grassland in Southern Britain. Biological Conservation, 58, 297316.
  • Gough, M.W. & Marrs, R.H. (1990) A comparison of soil fertility between semi-natural and agricultural plant communities: implications for the creation of species-rich grassland on abandoned agricultural land. Biological Conservation, 51, 8396.
  • Grime, J.P. (1979) Plant Strategies and Vegetation Processes. John Wiley & Sons, Chichester, UK.
  • Güsewell, S. (2004) N:P ratios in terrestrial plants: variation and functional significance. New Phytologist, 164, 243266.
  • Hill, M.O., Preston, C.D. & Roy, D.B. (2004) Plantatt. Attributes of British and Irish Plants: Status, Size, Life History, Geography and Habitats. Raven Marketing Group, Cambridgeshire, UK.
  • Hodgson, J.G. (1990) The role of autecological accounts. Calcareous Grasslands: Ecology and Management (eds S.H.Hillier, D.H.W.Walton & D.A.Wells), pp. 161168. Bluntisham Books, Bluntisham, UK.
  • Hodgson, J.G., Grime, J.P., Hunt, R. & Thompson, K. (1995) The Electronic Comparative Plant Ecology. Chapman & Hall, London.
  • Hutchings, M.J. & Booth, K.D. (1996) Studies on the feasibility of re-creating chalk grassland vegetation on ex-arable land. I. The potential roles of the seed bank and the seed rain. Journal of Applied Ecology, 33, 11711181.
  • Janssens, F., Peeters, A., Tallowin, J.R.B., Bakker, J.P., Bekker, R.M., Fillat, F. & Oomes, M.J.M. (1998) Relationship between soil chemical factors and grassland diversity. Plant and Soil, 202, 6978.
  • Johnson, D., Leake, J.R. & Lee, J.A. (1999) The effects of quantity and duration of simulated pollutant nitrogen deposition on root-surface phosphatase activities in calcareous and acid grasslands: a bioassay approach. New Phytologist, 141, 433442.
  • Kahmen, S. & Poschlod, P. (2004) Plant functional trait responses to grassland succession over 25 years. Journal of Vegetation Science, 15, 2132.
  • Keymer, R.J. & Leach, S.J. (1990) Calcareous grassland – a limited resource in Britain. Calcareous Grasslands: Ecology and Management (eds S.H.Hillier, D.H.W.Walton & D.A.Wells), pp. 1117. Bluntisham Books, Bluntisham, UK.
  • Kiehl, K., Thormann, A. & Pfadenhauer, J. (2006) Evaluation of initial restoration measures during the restoration of calcareous grasslands on former arable fields. Restoration Ecology, 14, 148156.
  • Lavorel, S. & Garnier, E. (2002) Predicting changes in community composition and ecosystem functioning from plant traits: revisiting the Holy Grail. Functional Ecology, 16, 545556.
  • Lepš, J. & Šmilauer, P. (2003) Multivariate Analysis of Ecological Data using CANOCO. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK.
  • Lockwood, J.L. & Samuels, C.L. (2004) Assembly models and the practice of restoration. Assembly Rules and Restoration Ecology (eds V.M.Temperton, R.J.Hobbs, T.Nuttle & S.Halle), pp. 5570. Island Press, Washington, D.C.
  • Marrs, R.H. (1993) Soil fertility and nature conservation in Europe: theoretical considerations and practical management solutions. Advances in Ecological Research, 24, 241300.
  • McCoy, E.D. & Mushinsky, H.R. (2002) Measuring the success of wildlife community restoration. Ecological Applications, 12, 18611871.
  • Milligan, A.L., Putwain, P.D., Cox, E.S., Ghorbani, J., Le Duc, M.G. & Marrs, R.H. (2004) Developing an integrated land management strategy for the restoration of moorland vegetation on Molinia caerulea-dominated vegetation for conservation purposes in upland Britain. Biological Conservation, 119, 371387.
  • Newbold, C. (1989) Semi-natural habitats or habitat re-creation: conflict or partnership? Biological Habitat Reconstruction (ed. G.P.Buckley), pp. 917. Belhaven Press, London.
  • Olff, H., Pegtel, D.M. & Vangroenendael, J.M. (1994) Germination strategies during grassland succession. Journal of Ecology, 82, 6977.
  • Owen, K.M. & Marrs, R.H. (2000) Acidifying arable soils for the restoration of acid grasslands. Applied Vegetation Science, 3, 105116.
  • Poschlod, P. & WallisDeVries, M.F. (2002) The historical and socioeconomic perspective of calcareous grasslands – lessons from the distant and recent past. Biological Conservation, 104, 361376.
  • Prach, K. (2003) Spontaneous succession in Central European man-made habitats: what information can be used in restoration practice? Applied Vegetation Science, 6, 125129.
  • Pywell, R.F., Bullock, J.M., Hopkins, A., Walker, K.J., Sparks, T.H., Burke, M.J.W. & Peel, S. (2002) Restoration of species-rich grassland on arable land: assessing the limiting processes using a multi-site experiment. Journal of Applied Ecology, 39, 294309.
  • Pywell, R.F., Bullock, J.M., Roy, D.B., Warman, L., Walker, K.J. & Rothery, P. (2003) Plant traits as predictors of performance in ecological restoration. Journal of Applied Ecology, 40, 6577.
  • Ricklefs, R.E. & Nealen, P. (1998) Lineage-dependent rates of evolutionary diversification: analysis of bivariate ellipses. Functional Ecology, 12, 871885.
  • Roem, W.J. & Berendse, F. (2000) Soil acidity and nutrient supply ratio as possible factors determining changes in plant species diversity in grassland and heathland communities. Biological Conservation, 92, 151161.
  • Ruiz-Jaen, M.C. & Aide, T.M. (2005) Restoration success: how is it being measured? Restoration Ecology, 13, 569577.
  • Ryan, B.F., Joiner, B.L. & Ryan, T. (2000) Minitab Handbook. Brooks Cole, Florence, KY, USA.
  • Stace, C. (1997) New Flora of the British Isles. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK.
  • Suding, K.N., Gross, K.L. & Houseman, G.R. (2004) Alternative states and positive feedbacks in restoration ecology. Trends in Ecology & Evolution, 19, 4653.
  • Ter Braak, C.J.F. & Šmilauer, P. (2002) CANOCO Reference Manual and CANODRAW for Windows User's Guide Version 4.5. Microcomputer Power, Ithaca, NY, USA.
  • Thompson, K., Bakker, J.P., Bekker, R.M. & Hodgson, J.G. (1998) Ecological correlates of seed persistence in soil in the north-west European flora. Journal of Ecology, 86, 163169.
  • Voigt, W. & Perner, J. (2004) Functional group interaction patterns across trophic levels in a regenerating and a seminatural grassland. Assembly Rules and Restoration Ecology (eds V.M.Temperton, R.J.Hobbs, T.Nuttle & S.Halle), pp. 156188. Island Press, Washington, D.C.
  • Walker, K.J., Stevens, P.A., Stevens, D.P., Mountford, J.O., Manchester, S.J. & Pywell, R.F. (2004) The restoration and re-creation of species-rich lowland grassland on land formerly managed for intensive agriculture in the UK. Biological Conservation, 119, 118.
  • Walters, B.B. (2000) Local mangrove planting in the Philippines: are fisherfolk and fishpond owners effective restorationists? Restoration Ecology, 8, 237246.
  • Wassen, M.J., Venterink, H.O., Lapshina, E.D. & Tanneberger, F. (2005) Endangered plants persist under phosphorus limitation. Nature, 437, 547550.
  • Wells, T.C.E. (1990) Establishing chalk grassland on previously arable land using seed mixtures. Calcareous Grasslands – Ecology and Management (eds S.H.Hillier, D.H.W.Walton & D.A.Wells), pp. 169170. Bluntisham Books, Huntingdon, UK.
  • Wells, T.C.E., Sheail, J., Ball, D.F. & Ward, L.K. (1976) Ecological studies on the Porton Ranges: relationships between vegetation, soil and land-use history. Journal of Ecology, 64, 589626.
  • White, P.S. & Walker, J.L. (1997) Approximating nature's variation: selecting and using reference information in restoration ecology. Restoration Ecology, 5, 338349.
  • Wilkins, S., Keith, D.A. & Adam, P. (2003) Measuring success: evaluating the restoration of a grassy eucalypt woodland on the Cumberland Plain, Sydney, Australia. Restoration Ecology, 11, 489503.
  • Willems, J.H. & Van Nieuwstadt, M.G.L. (1996) Long-term after effects of fertilization on above-ground phytomass and species diversity in calcareous grassland. Journal of Vegetation Science, 7, 177184.
  • Willems, J.H. (2001) Problems, approaches, and results in restoration of Dutch calcareous grassland during the last 30 years. Restoration Ecology, 9, 147154.
  • Wolters, M., Garbutt, A. & Bakker, J.P. (2005) Salt-marsh restoration: evaluating the success of de-embankments in north-west Europe. Biological Conservation, 123, 249268.
  • Zedler, J.B. & Callaway, J.C. (1999) Tracking wetland restoration: do mitigation sites follow desired trajectories? Restoration Ecology, 7, 6973.
  • Zedler, J.B. & Callaway, J.C. (2000) Evaluating the progress of engineered tidal wetlands. Ecological Engineering, 15, 211225.