Present address: Denny Ecology, Vine Cottage, Hailey, Witney, Oxford, OX29 9UB, UK
Minimal effects of wind turbines on the distribution of wintering farmland birds
Article first published online: 1 OCT 2008
© 2008 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2008 British Ecological Society
Journal of Applied Ecology
Volume 45, Issue 6, pages 1689–1694, December 2008
How to Cite
Devereux, C. L., Denny, M. J. H. and Whittingham, M. J. (2008), Minimal effects of wind turbines on the distribution of wintering farmland birds. Journal of Applied Ecology, 45: 1689–1694. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2664.2008.01560.x
- Issue published online: 21 OCT 2008
- Article first published online: 1 OCT 2008
- Received 8 April 2008; accepted 16 August 2008; Handling Editor: Chris Elphick
- climate change;
- sustainable agriculture;
- farmland biodiversity;
- agri-environment schemes;
- noise pollution;
- wind energy
- 1Energy production from wind power is increasing rapidly in Europe to help combat the threats from global warming. For example, the European Commission have set a target for 20% of EU energy to come from renewable sources by 2020. In recent decades, biodiversity on European farmland has fallen dramatically due to agricultural intensification. Agri-environment schemes (AES) have been implemented across the EU, in part at least, to combat these declines. Significant numbers of turbines are, and will be, built on farmland. There is, therefore, a potential conflict between wind turbines and AES on farmland.
- 2Various mechanisms potentially cause wind turbines to alter bird distribution including noise and physical structure.
- 3We show that turbine location (controlling for other effects such as boundary location and crop type) did not affect the distribution of four functional groups of wintering farmland birds (seed-eaters, corvids, gamebirds and Eurasian skylarks) at differing distances from wind turbines ranging from 0–150 m to 600–750 m. The only species for which distribution was related to the presence of wind turbines was the largest and least manoeuvrable (common pheasant Phasianus colchicus L.).
- 4In a further analysis of data collected at 0–75 m and 75–150 m from turbines, we found no evidence to suggest that farmland birds in our study avoided areas close to wind turbines.
- 5Synthesis and applications. This is the first evidence suggesting that the present and future location of large numbers of wind turbines on European farmland is unlikely to have detrimental effects on farmland birds (at least for those species included in our study). This should be welcome news for nature conservationists, wind energy companies and policy-makers. However, our work is only a first step, as there may be potential influences of wind turbines on bird distribution during the breeding season.