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Table S1. Presence/absence of species of farmland birds in blocks at different distances from 16 wind turbines located on two different sites in East Anglia. As an illustration, 29 ‘blocks’ in the distance band 0–150 m contained one or more Eurasian skylarks. The total number of blocks in the 0–150 m distance band was used as the binomial denominator (137 in this case) and ‘29’ as the numerator in the Eurasian skylark model (e.g. 29/137 = 21·17% of blocks visited in the 0–150 m band were occupied by Eurasian skylarks (these proportions are presented in the % columns, see Methods for further details). Note: the proportion of blocks occupied within each distance class per speices are presented but these do not sum up to 100%.

Table S2. Counts of farmland bird species at different distances from 16 wind turbines located on two different sites in East Anglia (note that these data include birds seen or flushed during surveys across the farmland sites; birds seen flying across sites are not included here). The number of 150 m2 blocks visited in each distance category varied due to the shape of the sites and access issues. The total number of blocks visited in each distance category were as follows: 0–150 m (137 visits); 150–300 m (131 visits); 300–450 m (137 visits); 450–600 m (74); 600–750 m (66). The statistical modelling (see Table 2) controlled for this variation by using binomial error models (see Methods). Note: as an illustration, 61 Eurasian skylarks were counted in the distance band 0–150 m from a wind turbine and a total of 226 Eurasian skylarks were counted across all distance bands.

Table S3. Proportion of blocks occupied by each functional group within (a) 75 m of a turbine and (b) 75–150 m from a turbine. Note that although the number of blocks with a presence recorded was the same as in Table S1 (e.g. 29 for Eurasian skylarks), the number of 75 m blocks close to a turbine (4) was much smaller than the number of 75 m blocks within 75–150 m of a turbine (12). Thus, the percentage scores can appear quite different. To further illustrate the data, the number of occupied blocks is shown in brackets (e.g. the 14 in brackets after Eurasian skylark indicates that 14 blocks within 75 m of a turbine were occupied, and the 25 in brackets after the count for Eurasian skylarks indicates that 25 Eurasian skylarks were counted in blocks 75 m from turbines).

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