Appendix S1. Photograph of hessian bags used in recruitment facilitation experiments as a test of donor-independent seagrass rehabilitation. A fine-weave bag (top) was encased in a coarse outer-weave (bottom) before being filled with sand, sewn closed, and deployed on the sea floor. Bags can be constructed from cheap materials, are easy to deploy by simply dropping them over the side of a boat, and are completely biodegradable. Additionally, bags avoid damaging existing meadows, unlike traditional transplantation techniques.

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