Appendix S1. Descriptive statistics of the data sets.

Appendix S2. Evaluation of the effect of pseudo-replication.

Table S1. Overview of the 13 study areas.

Table S2. Factors affecting the start of breeding and multi-broodedness.

Table S3. Factors affecting annual fecundity.

Table S4. Factors affecting nestling survival.

Figure S1. Fecundity of single- and multi-brood pairs.

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