Appendix S1. Matrix projection models used to estimate asymptotic population growth rate.

Appendix S2. Results of capture-mark-recapture analyses.

Table S1. Definitions of matrix projection model terms and specified parameter values.

Table S2. Capture-mark-recapture models describing apparent monthly survival probability for eight chough cohorts.

Table S3. Capture-mark-recapture models where month-specific survival was constrained to be identical across cohorts with relatively high and low first-year survival probabilities.

Fig. S1. Four stage-class matrix projection model.

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