Appendix S1. Details on the vital rates and the matrix population model.

Appendix S2. Searching strategies and calculation for the searching costs.

Fig. S1. Relationship between stem diameter and canopy diameter for saplings, small juveniles and large juveniles.

Fig. S2. Approximated optimal solutions of control predicted from adult and large juvenile densities (144 states).

Fig. S3. (a) Drainage and evapotranspiration parameter (ei) for the tipping bucket model (calculated from Australia bureau of meteorology and from (van Klinken et al., 2008). (b) Number of days per year above 130 mm of soil moisture, with wet and dry cycles distinguished.

Table S1. Estimates of annual vital rates at different life-stages (best/lower/upper estimates).

Table S2. Density states for every life-stages, and related number of individuals and canopy cover, based on typical population structure (van Klinken et al., 2006).

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