SEARCH

SEARCH BY CITATION

References

  • Ahti, T., Hämet-Ahti, L. & Jalas, J. (1968) Vegetation zones and their sections in northwestern Europe. Annales Botanici Fennici, 5, 169211.
  • Ahti, T., Jørgensen, P.M., Kristinsson, H., Moberg, R., Søchting, U. & Thor, G. (2007) Nordic Lichen Flora 3. Museum of Evolution, Uppsala University on behalf of Nordic Lichen Society, Uddevalla.
  • Akaike, H. (1974) A new look at the statistical model identification. IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control, 19, 716723.
  • Akçakaya, H.R. & Sjögren-Gulve, P. (2000) Population viability analyses in conservation planning: an overview. Ecological Bulletins, 48, 921.
  • Barkman, J.J. (1958) Phytosociology and Ecology of Cryptogamic Epiphytes. Van Gorcum & Comp. N.V., Assen.
  • Bruno, J.F., Stachowicz, J.J. & Bertness, M.D. (2003) Inclusion of facilitation into ecological theory. Trends in Ecology & Evolution, 18, 119125.
  • Burnham, K.P. & Anderson, D.R. (2002) Model Selection and Multimodel Inference. A Practical Information-Theoretic Approach. Springer, New York.
  • Burns, K.C. & Neufeld, C.J. (2009) Plant extinction dynamics in an insular metacommunity. Oikos, 118, 191198.
  • Caruso, A., Thor, G. & Snäll, T. (2010) Colonization-extinction dynamics of epixylic lichens along a decay gradient in a dynamic landscape. Oikos, 119, 19471953.
  • Dettki, H. & Esseen, P.-A. (2003) Modelling long-term effects of forest management on epiphytic lichens in northern Sweden. Forest Ecology and Management, 175, 223238.
  • Edenius, L., Ericsson, G., Kempe, G., Bergström, R. & Danell, K. (2011) The effects of changing land use and browsing on aspen abundance and regeneration: a 50-year perspective from Sweden. Journal of Applied Ecology, 48, 301309.
  • Esseen, P.-A., Ehnström, B., Ericson, L. & Sjöberg, K. (1997) Boreal forests. Ecological Bulletins, 46, 1647.
  • Fedrowitz, K., Kaasalainen, U. & Rikkinen, J. (2011) Genotype variability of Nostoc symbionts associated with three epiphytic Nephroma species in a boreal forest landscape. The Bryologist, 114, 220230.
  • Fleishman, E., Ray, C., Sjogren-Gulve, P., Boggs, C.L. & Murphy, D.D. (2002) Assessing the roles of patch quality, area, and isolation in predicting metapopulation dynamics. Conservation Biology, 16, 706716.
  • Gauslaa, Y. (1985) The ecology of Lobarion pulmonariae and Parmelion caperatae in Quercus dominated forests in South-West Norway. The Lichenologist, 17, 117140.
  • Gauslaa, Y. (2008) Mollusc grazing may constrain the ecological niche of the old forest lichen Pseudocyphellaria crocata. Plant Biology, 10, 711717.
  • Hanski, I. (1999) Metapopulation Ecology. Oxford University Press Inc., New York.
  • Hanski, I. (2000) Extinction debt and species credit in boreal forests: modelling the consequences of different approaches to biodiversity conservation. Annales Zoologi Fennici, 37, 271280.
  • Hudson, D.J. (1971) Interval estimation from the likelihood function. Journal of the Royal Statistical Society, 33, 256262.
  • Jönsson, M.T., Edman, M. & Jonsson, B.G. (2008) Colonization and extinction patterns of wood-decaying fungi in a boreal old-growth Picea abies forest. Journal of Ecology, 96, 10651075.
  • Kimmerer, R.W. (1994) Ecological consequences of sexual versus asexual reproduction in Dicranum flagellare and Tetraphis pellucida. The Bryologist, 97, 2025.
  • Koskinen, A. (1955) Über Die Kryptogamen Der Bäume, Besonders Die Flechten, Im Gewässergebiet Des Päijänne Sowie an Den Flüssen Kalajoki, Lestijoki Und Pyhäjoki. Floristische, Soziologische Und Ökologische Studie 1. Mercatorin Kirjapaino, Helsinki.
  • Kouki, J., Arnold, K. & Martikainen, P. (2004) Long-term persistence of aspen – a key host for many threatened species – is endangered in old-growth conservation areas in Finland. Journal for Nature Conservation, 12, 4152.
  • Kuusinen, M. (1996) Cyanobacterial macrolichens on Populus tremula as indicators of forest continuity in Finland. Biological Conservation, 75, 4349.
  • Latva-Karjanmaa, T., Penttila, R. & Siitonen, J. (2007) The demographic structure of European aspen (Populus tremula) populations in managed and old-growth boreal forests in eastern Finland. Canadian Journal of Forest Research, 37, 10701081.
  • Laube, S. & Zotz, G. (2007) A metapopulation approach to the analysis of long-term changes in the epiphyte vegetation on the host tree Annona glabra. Journal of Vegetation Science, 18, 613624.
  • Lindenmayer, D.B., Franklin, J.F. & Fischer, J. (2006) General management principles and a checklist of strategies to guide forest biodiversity conservation. Biological Conservation, 131, 433445.
  • Löbel, S., Snäll, T. & Rydin, H. (2006) Metapopulation processes in epiphytes inferred from patterns of regional distribution and local abundance in fragmented forest landscapes. Journal of Ecology, 94, 856868.
  • Lõhmus, A. & Lõhmus, P. (2010) Epiphyte communities on the trunks of retention trees stabilise in 5 years after timber harvesting, but remain threatened due to tree loss. Biological Conservation, 143, 891898.
  • McCullagh, P. & Nelder, J.A. (1989) Generalized Linear Models. Chapman and Hall, London.
  • Moilanen, A. & Nieminen, M. (2002) Simple connectivity measures in spatial ecology. Ecology, 83, 11311145.
  • Moilanen, A., Smith, A.T. & Hanski, I. (1998) Long-term dynamics in a metapopulation of the American Pika. The American Naturalist, 152, 530542.
  • Myllys, L., Stenroos, S., Thell, A. & Kuusinen, M. (2007) High cyanobiont selectivity of epiphytic lichens in old growth boreal forest of Finland. New Phytologist, 173, 621629.
  • Öckinger, E. & Nilsson, S.G. (2010) Local population extinction and vitality of an epiphytic lichen in fragmented old-growth forest. Ecology, 91, 21002109.
  • Östlund, L., Zackrisson, O. & Axelsson, A.-L. (1997) The history and transformation of a Scandinavian boreal forest landscape since the 19th century. Canadian Journal of Forest Research, 27, 11981206.
  • R Development Core Team (2010) R: A Language and Environment for Statistical Computing. R Foundation for Statistical Computing, Vienna, Austria.
  • Rassi, P., Hyvärinen, E., Juslén, A. & Mannerkoski, I. (eds). (2010) The 2010 Red List of Finnish Species. Ministry of the Environment and Finnish Environment Institute, Helsinki.
  • Ribeiro Jr, P.J. & Diggle, P.J. (2001) geoR: a package for geostatistical analysis. R-NEWS, 1, 1518.
  • Richardson, D.H.S. & Cameron, R.P. (2004) Cyanolichens: their response to pollution and possible management strategies for their conservation in northeastern North America. Northeastern Naturalist, 11, 122.
  • Riiali, A., Penttinen, A. & Kuusinen, M. (2001) Bayesian mapping of lichens growing on trees. Biometrical Journal, 43, 717736.
  • Rikkinen, J., Oksanen, I. & Lohtander, K. (2002) Lichen guilds share related cyanobacterial symbionts. Science, 297, 357.
  • Roberge, J., Bengtsson, S.B.K., Wulff, S. & Snäll, T. (2011) Edge creation and tree dieback influence the patch-tracking metapopulation dynamics of a red-listed epiphytic bryophyte. Journal of Applied Ecology, 48, 650658.
  • Rose, F. (1992) Temperate forest management. Its effect on bryophyte and lichen flora and habitats. Bryophytes and Lichens in a Changing Environment (eds J.W. Bates & A.M. Farmer), pp. 211233. Oxford University Press Inc, Oxford.
  • Sjögren Gulve, P. (1994) Distribution and extinction patterns within a northern metapopulation of the pool frog, Rana lessonae. Ecology, 75, 13571367.
  • Snäll, T., Ehrlén, J. & Rydin, H. (2005) Colonization-extinction dynamics of an epiphyte metapopulation in a dynamic landscape. Ecology, 86, 106115.
  • Snäll, T., Ribeiro Jr, P.J. & Rydin, H. (2003) Spatial occurrence and colonisations in patch-tracking metapopulations: local conditions versus dispersal. Oikos, 103, 566578.
  • Snäll, T., Fogelqvist, J., Ribeiro Jr, P.J. & Lascoux, M. (2004a) Spatial genetic structure in two congeneric epiphytes with different dispersal strategies analysed by three different methods. Molecular Ecology, 13, 21092119.
  • Snäll, T., Hagström, A., Rudolphi, J. & Rydin, H. (2004b) Distribution pattern of the epiphyte Neckera pennata on three spatial scales – importance of past landscape structure, connectivity and local conditions. Ecography, 27, 757766.
  • Snäll, T., Pennanen, J., Kivistö, L. & Hanski, I. (2005) Modelling epiphyte metapopulation dynamics in a dynamic forest landscape. Oikos, 109, 209222.
  • Swedish Forest Industries Federation (2011) Facts and Figures 2010. Brommatryck & Brolins, Stockholm.
  • Thomas, C.D. (1994) Extinction, colonization, and metapopulations: environmental tracking by rare species. Conservation Biology, 8, 373378.
  • Thomas, C.D. & Hanski, I. (1997) Butterfly metapopulations. Metapopulation Biology: Ecology, Genetics, and Evolution (eds I. Hanski & M.E. Gilpin), pp. 359386. Academic Press, San Diego, CA, USA.
  • Timonen, J., Gustafsson, L., Kotiaho, J.S. & Mönkkönen, M. (2011) Hotspots in cold climate: conservation value of woodland key habitats in boreal forests. Biological Conservation, 144, 20612067.
  • Walser, J.-C., Zoller, S., Büchler, U. & Scheidegger, C. (2001) Species-specific detection of Lobaria pulmonaria (lichenized ascomycete) diaspores in litter samples trapped in snow cover. Molecular Ecology, 10, 21292138.
  • Westoby, M., Jurado, E. & Leishman, M. (1992) Comparative evolutionary ecology of seed size. Trends in Ecology & Evolution, 7, 368372.
  • Zotz, G. & Bader, M.Y. (2009) Epiphytic plants in a changing world-global: change effects on vascular and non-vascular epiphytes. Progress in Botany, 70, 147170.