SEARCH

SEARCH BY CITATION

References

  • APHA (1999) Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater, 20th edn. American Public Health Association, Washington, DC.
  • Arnold, T.W. (2010) Uninformative parameters and model selection using Akaike’s information criterion. Journal of Wildlife Management, 74, 11751178.
  • Bartoń, K. (2009) MuMIn: Multi-model inference. R package Version 0.12.2/r18. http://R-Forge.R-project.org/projects/mumin/ .
  • Biggs, B.J.F., Francoeur, S.N., Huryn, A.D., Young, R., Arbuckle, C.J. & Townsend, C.R. (2000) Trophic cascades in streams: effects of nutrient enrichment on autotrophic and consumer benthic communities under two different fish predation regimes. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, 57, 13801394.
  • Bryce, S.A., Lomnicky, G.A. & Kaufmann, P.R. (2010) Protecting sediment-sensitive aquatic species in mountain streams through the application of biologically based streambed sediment criteria. Journal of the North American Benthological Society, 29, 657672.
  • Burnham, K.P. & Anderson, D.R. (2002) Model Selection and Multi-Model Inference: A Practical Information-Theoretic Approach, 2nd edn. Springer, Berlin.
  • Camargo, J.A. & Alonso, A. (2006) Ecological and toxicological effects of inorganic nitrogen pollution in aquatic ecosystems: a global assessment. Environment International, 32, 831849.
  • Camargo, J.A., Alonso, A. & Salamanca, A. (2005) Nitrate toxicity to aquatic animals: a review with new data for freshwater invertebrates. Chemosphere, 58, 12551267.
  • Cohen, J. (1988) Statistical Power Analysis for the Behavioral Sciences, 2nd edn. Erlbaum, Hillsdale, NJ.
  • Cormier, S.M., Paul, J.F., Spehar, R.L., Shaw-Allen, P., Berry, W.J. & Suter, G.W. (2008) Using field data and weight of evidence to develop water quality criteria. Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management, 4, 490504.
  • Cottingham, K.L., Lennon, J.T. & Brown, B.L. (2005) Knowing when to draw the line: designing more informative ecological experiments. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment, 3, 145152.
  • Culp, J.M. & Baird, D.J. (2006) Establishing cause-effect relationships in multi-stressor environments. Methods in Stream Ecology (eds F.R. Hauer & G.A. Lamberti), pp. 835854. Elsevier, Oxford, UK.
  • Dodds, W.K., Clements, W.H., Gido, K., Hilderbrand, R.H. & King, R.S. (2010) Thresholds, breakpoints, and nonlinearity in freshwaters as related to management. Journal of the North American Benthological Society, 29, 988997.
  • Dolédec, S., Phillips, N., Scarsbrook, M., Riley, R.H. & Townsend, C.R. (2006) Comparison of structural and functional approaches to determining landuse effects on grassland stream invertebrate communities. Journal of the North American Benthological Society, 25, 4460.
  • Elser, J.J., Bracken, M.E.S., Cleland, E.E., Gruner, D.S., Harpole, W.S., Hillebrand, H., Ngai, J.T., Seabloom, E.W., Shurin, J.B. & Smith, J.E. (2007) Global analysis of nitrogen and phosphorus limitation of primary producers in freshwater, marine and terrestrial ecosystems. Ecology Letters, 10, 11351142.
  • Evans-White, M.A., Dodds, W.K., Huggins, D.G. & Baker, D.S. (2009) Thresholds in macroinvertebrate biodiversity and stoichiometry across water-quality gradients in Central Plains (USA) streams. Journal of the North American Benthological Society, 28, 855868.
  • Francoeur, S.N. (2001) Meta-analysis of lotic nutrient amendment experiments: detecting and quantifying subtle responses. Journal of the North American Benthological Society, 20, 358368.
  • Friberg, N. (2010) Pressure-response relationships in stream ecology: introduction and synthesis. Freshwater Biology, 55, 13671381.
  • Friberg, N., Skriver, J., Larsen, S.E., Pedersen, M.L. & Buffagni, A. (2010) Stream macroinvertebrate occurrence along gradients in organic pollution and eutrophication. Freshwater Biology, 55, 14051419.
  • Gotelli, N.J. & Ellison, A.M. (2004) A Primer of Ecological Statistics. Sinauer Associates Inc. Publishers, Sunderland, Massachusetts USA.
  • Groffman, P., Baron, J., Blett, T., Gold, A., Goodman, I., Gunderson, L., Levinson, B., Palmer, M., Paerl, H., Peterson, G., Poff, N., Rejeski, D., Reynolds, J., Turner, M., Weathers, K. & Wiens, J. (2006) Ecological thresholds: The key to successful environmental management or an important concept with no practical application? Ecosystems, 9, 113.
  • Heino, J., Mykra, H., Hamalainen, H., Aroviita, J. & Muotka, T. (2007) Responses of taxonomic distinctness and species diversity indices to anthropogenic impacts and natural environmental gradients in stream macroinvertebrates. Freshwater Biology, 52, 18461861.
  • Hilderbrand, R.H., Utz, R.M., Stranko, S.A. & Raesly, R.L. (2010) Applying thresholds to forecast potential biodiversity loss from human development. Journal of the North American Benthological Society, 29, 10091016.
  • Hillebrand, H. (2002) Top-down versus bottom-up control of autotrophic biomass – a meta-analysis on experiments with periphyton. Journal of the North American Benthological Society, 21, 349369.
  • Johnson, J.B. & Omland, K.S. (2004) Model selection in ecology and evolution. Trends in Ecology & Evolution, 19, 101108.
  • King, R.S. & Baker, M.E. (2010) Considerations for analyzing ecological community thresholds in response to anthropogenic environmental gradients. Journal of the North American Benthological Society, 29, 9981008.
  • Larned, S.T., Scarsbrook, M.R., Snelder, T.H., Norton, N.J. & Biggs, B.J.F. (2004) Water quality in low-elevation streams and rivers of New Zealand: recent state and trends in contrasting land-cover classes. New Zealand Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research, 38, 347366.
  • Larsen, S. & Ormerod, S.J. (2010) Low-level effects of inert sediments on temperate stream invertebrates. Freshwater Biology, 55, 476486.
  • Larsen, S., Vaughan, I.P. & Ormerod, S.J. (2009) Scale-dependent effects of fine sediments on temperate headwater invertebrates. Freshwater Biology, 54, 203219.
  • Liess, A., Lange, K., Schulz, F., Piggott, J.J., Matthaei, C.D. & Townsend, C.R. (2009) Light, nutrients and grazing interact to determine diatom species richness via changes to productivity, nutrient state and grazer activity. Journal of Ecology, 97, 326336.
  • Matthaei, C.D., Weller, F., Kelly, D.W. & Townsend, C.R. (2006) Impacts of fine sediment addition to tussock, pasture, dairy and deer farming streams in New Zealand. Freshwater Biology, 51, 21542172.
  • McDowell, R.W., Larned, S.T. & Houlbrooke, D.J. (2009) Nitrogen and phosphorus in New Zealand streams and rivers: control and impact of eutrophication and the influence of land management. New Zealand Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research, 43, 985995.
  • Miltner, R.J. (2010) A method and rationale for deriving nutrient criteria for small rivers and streams in Ohio. Environmental Management, 45, 842855.
  • Nakagawa, S. & Cuthill, I.C. (2007) Effect size, confidence interval and statistical significance: a practical guide for biologists. Biological Reviews, 82, 591605.
  • Nakagawa, S. & Freckleton, R. (2011) Model averaging, missing data and multiple imputation: a case study for behavioural ecology. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology, 65, 103116.
  • Niyogi, D.K., Koren, M., Arbuckle, C.J. & Townsend, C.R. (2007) Stream communities along a catchment land-use gradient: subsidy-stress responses to pastoral development. Environmental Management, 39, 213225.
  • Ormerod, S.J., Dobson, M., Hildrew, A.G. & Townsend, C.R. (2010) Multiple stressors in freshwater ecosystems. Freshwater Biology, 55, 14.
  • Paine, R.T., Tegner, M.J. & Johnson, E.A. (1998) Compounded perturbations yield ecological surprises. Ecosystems, 1, 535545.
  • Quinn, J.M. (2000) Effects of pastoral development. New Zealand Stream Invertebrates: Ecology and Implications for Management (eds K.J. Collier & M.J. Winterbourn), pp. 208229. New Zealand Limnological Society, Christchurch, New Zealand.
  • Quinn, G.P. & Keough, M.J. (2002) Experimental Design and Data Analysis for Biologists. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK.
  • Richards, S., Whittingham, M. & Stephens, P. (2011) Model selection and model averaging in behavioural ecology: the utility of the IT-AIC framework. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology, 65, 7789.
  • Riley, R.H., Townsend, C.R., Niyogi, D.K., Arbuckle, C.A. & Peacock, K.A. (2003) Headwater stream response to grassland agricultural development in New Zealand. New Zealand Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research, 37, 389403.
  • Schielzeth, H. (2010) Simple means to improve the interpretability of regression coefficients. Methods in Ecology and Evolution, 1, 103113.
  • Smith, A.J. & Tran, C.P. (2010) A weight-of-evidence approach to define nutrient criteria protective of aquatic life in large rivers. Journal of the North American Benthological Society, 29, 875891.
  • Statzner, B. & Bêche, L.A. (2010) Can biological invertebrate traits resolve effects of multiple stressors on running water ecosystems? Freshwater Biology, 55, 80119.
  • Strayer, D.L. & Dudgeon, D. (2010) Freshwater biodiversity conservation: recent progress and future challenges. Journal of the North American Benthological Society, 29, 344358.
  • Suren, A.M. & Jowett, I.G. (2001) Effects of deposited sediment on invertebrate drift: an experimental study. New Zealand Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research, 35, 725737.
  • Townsend, C.R., Uhlmann, S.S. & Matthaei, C.D. (2008) Individual and combined responses of stream ecosystems to multiple stressors. Journal of Applied Ecology, 45, 18101819.
  • Wagenhoff, A. (2011) Multiple-stressor effects along gradients of deposited fine sediment and dissolved nutrients in streams. PhD thesis, University of Otago.
  • Wagenhoff, A., Townsend, C.R., Phillips, N. & Matthaei, C.D. (2011) Subsidy-stress and multiple-stressor effects along gradients of deposited fine sediment and dissolved nutrients in a regional set of streams and rivers. Freshwater Biology, 56, 19161936.
  • Wang, L.Z., Robertson, D.M. & Garrison, P.J. (2007) Linkages between nutrients and assemblages of macroinvertebrates and fish in wadeable streams: Implication to nutrient criteria development. Environmental Management, 39, 194212.
  • Withers, P.J.A. & Jarvie, H.P. (2008) Delivery and cycling of phosphorus in rivers: a review. Science of the Total Environment, 400, 379395.
  • Yuan, L.L. (2010) Estimating the effects of excess nutrients on stream invertebrates from observational data. Ecological Applications, 20, 110125.
  • Zweig, L.D. & Rabeni, C.F. (2001) Biomonitoring for deposited sediment using benthic invertebrates: a test on 4 Missouri streams. Journal of the North American Benthological Society, 20, 643657.