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Fig. S1. Effects of grazing on C, N, and P contents (%) in above- and below-ground biomass, litter, and soil across different community types of the China–Mongolia transect (Error bars represent SE).

Fig. S2. Effects of grazing on foliar C, N, and P contents of dominant and subdominant species (error bars denote SE).

Table S1. Abiotic and biotic characteristics of the 18 paired study sites along the China–Mongolia transect.

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