Although Gram-negative enteropathogenic bacteria are the target strains of nifurzide and nifuroxazide treatments, neither drug affected faecal counts of in vitro-susceptible Enterobacteriaceae in healthy volunteers. This absence of activity was shown to be due to the poor solubility of the drugs tested. Therefore, effect of high doses of nifurzide was investigated in gnotobiotic mice. Activity against in vitro susceptible enteropathogens was then observed. Normal bacterial cells were replaced in the faeces by elongated, nonseptate and unflagellated mutants. Moreover, the resistance to colonization by enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli and Shigella flexeri of an anaerobic flora of human origin was sharply decreased.