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The influences of temperature and pH on the survival and growth of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Candida stellata and Kloeckera apiculata were examined in the presence of ethanol concentrations between 2.5 and 15% v/v. At 15°C, the maximum concentrations of ethanol permitting the growth of S. cerevisiae, C. stellata and K. apiculata were 15%, 11% and 9%, respectively. These maximum concentrations were decreased at 10°C and 30°C. Cells of S. cerevisiae showed no loss in viability when incubated for 12 d at 10°C or 15°C in the presence of 15% ethanol but showed some loss at 30°C. Cells of C. stellata were tolerant of 12.5% ethanol at 10°C and 15°C but not at 30°C. Cells of K. apiculata were tolerant of 10–12.5% ethanol at 15°C but not at 10°C or 30°C. Sensitivity of the yeast cells to ethanol was marginally increased on decreasing the pH from 6-0 to 3–0.