The use of fluorescently-labelled monoclonal antibodies, with detection by multi-parameter flow cytometry, was investigated for the rapid detection of salmonellas in pure cultures. Accurate detection of specific Salmonella serotypes was demonstrated down to levels of below 104 cells ml-1 (within 30 min) and 1 cell ml-1 (after 6 h non-selective pre-enrichment). This level of sensitivity was attainedeven in the presence of high levels of other bacterial species that would otherwise have interfered with the results. With combinations of different antibodies, each with a unique fluorescent label, simultaneous analysis for two species was possible.