Fungal tyrosinases: new prospects in molecular characteristics, bioengineering and biotechnological applications

Authors

  • S. Halaouli,

    1. UMR 1163 INRA-Université de Provence de Biotechnologie des Champignons Filamenteux, IFR 86 de Biotechnologie Agro-Industrielle de Marseille, Marseille Cedex, France
    2. Laboratoire de Microbiologie Alimentaire et des Procédés de l'Environnement, Institut National des Sciences Appliquées et de Technologie, Tunis, Tunisia
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  • M. Asther,

    1. UMR 1163 INRA-Université de Provence de Biotechnologie des Champignons Filamenteux, IFR 86 de Biotechnologie Agro-Industrielle de Marseille, Marseille Cedex, France
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  • J.-C. Sigoillot,

    1. UMR 1163 INRA-Université de Provence de Biotechnologie des Champignons Filamenteux, IFR 86 de Biotechnologie Agro-Industrielle de Marseille, Marseille Cedex, France
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  • M. Hamdi,

    1. Laboratoire de Microbiologie Alimentaire et des Procédés de l'Environnement, Institut National des Sciences Appliquées et de Technologie, Tunis, Tunisia
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  • A. Lomascolo

    1. UMR 1163 INRA-Université de Provence de Biotechnologie des Champignons Filamenteux, IFR 86 de Biotechnologie Agro-Industrielle de Marseille, Marseille Cedex, France
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Anne Lomascolo, UMR 1163 INRA-Université de Provence de Biotechnologie des Champignons Filamenteux, IFR 86 de Biotechnologie Agro-Industrielle de Marseille, 163 Avenue de Luminy, Case 925, 13288 Marseille Cedex 09, France.
E-mail: lomascolo@esil.univ-mrs.fr

Abstract

Tyrosinases are type-3 copper proteins involved in the initial step of melanin synthesis. These enzymes catalyse both the o-hydroxylation of monophenols and the subsequent oxidation of the resulting o-diphenols into reactive o-quinones, which evolve spontaneously to produce intermediates, which associate in dark brown pigments. In fungi, tyrosinases are generally associated with the formation and stability of spores, in defence and virulence mechanisms, and in browning and pigmentation. First characterized from the edible mushroom Agaricus bisporus because of undesirable enzymatic browning problems during postharvest storage, tyrosinases were found, more recently, in several other fungi with relevant insights into molecular and genetic characteristics and into reaction mechanisms, highlighting their very promising properties for biotechnological applications. The limit of these applications remains in the fact that native fungal tyrosinases are generally intracellular and produced in low quantity. This review compiles the recent data on biochemical and molecular properties of fungal tyrosinases, underlining their importance in the biotechnological use of these enzymes. Next, their most promising applications in food, pharmaceutical and environmental fields are presented and the bioengineering approaches used for the development of tyrosinase-overproducing fungal strains are discussed.

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