Campylobacter spp. continue to be the greatest cause of bacterial gastrointestinal infections in humans worldwide. They encounter many stresses in the host intestinal tract, on foods and in the environment. However, in common with other enteric bacteria, they have developed survival mechanisms to overcome these stresses. Many of the survival mechanisms used by Campylobacter spp. differ from those used by other bacteria, such as Escherichia coli and Salmonella spp. This review summarizes the mechanisms by which Campylobacter spp. adapt to stress conditions and thereby increase their ability to survive on food and in the environment.