Aim: To examine the efficacy of mixed cultures with Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Pichia anomala on flavour profiles of alcoholic beverages, a Pichia mutant with low levels of ethyl acetate that negatively impact on the sensory quality was isolated.
Methods and Results: A petite mutant isolated from P. anomala NBRC 10213 treated with ethidium bromide had the lower activity of ethyl acetate-hydrolysing esterase (EAHase) than the wild-type in crude extracts. In the fermentation tests of pure cultures, the P. anomala mutant produced less ethanol, acetate and ethyl acetate than the wild-type. In mixed cultures with S. cerevisiae, the P. anomala mutant died quicker and produced lower amounts of ethyl acetate than the wild-type. Mixed cultures of S. cerevisiae and P. anomala showed higher activities of EAHase than pure culture of S. cerevisiae throughout the fermentation periods. The transition to the formation of acetate esters was considerably analogous to the transition to the activity of acetate ester-hydrolysing esterase with little time lag.
Conclusions: The P. anomala mutant was superior to the wild-type in flavour profiles. The higher ethyl acetate concentrations formed mainly by P. anomala in mixed cultures are the primary stimulus for the EAHase in S. cerevisiae and the activity of acetate ester-hydrolysing esterase is crucial to the formation of acetate esters in mixed cultures of S. cerevisiae and P. anomala.
Significance and Impact of the Study: An application of non-Saccharomyces yeast, P. anomala to enhance the sensory quality in alcoholic beverage and a mechanism of the formation of acetate esters in mixed cultures with S. cerevisiae and P. anomala were offered.