• bacterial cellulose;
  • Gluconacetobacter xylinus;
  • Hestrin–Schramm medium;
  • NMR spectroscopy;
  • scanning electron microscopy


Aims:  To determine the effect of carbon sources on cellulose produced by Gluconacetobacter xylinus strain ATCC 53524, and to characterize the purity and structural features of the cellulose produced.

Methods and Results:  Modified Hestrin Schramm medium containing the carbon sources mannitol, glucose, glycerol, fructose, sucrose or galactose were inoculated with Ga. xylinus strain ATCC 53524. Plate counts indicated that all carbon sources supported growth of the strain. Sucrose and glycerol gave the highest cellulose yields of 3·83 and 3·75 g l−1 respectively after 96 h fermentation, primarily due to a surge in cellulose production in the last 12 h. Mannitol, fructose or glucose resulted in consistent rates of cellulose production and yields of >2·5 g l−1. Solid state 13C CP/MAS NMR revealed that irrespective of the carbon source, the cellulose produced by ATCC 53524 was pure and highly crystalline. Scanning electron micrographs illustrated the densely packed network of cellulose fibres within the pellicles and that the different carbon sources did not markedly alter the micro-architecture of the resulting cellulose pellicles.

Conclusions:  The production rate of bacterial cellulose by Ga. xylinus (ATCC 53524) was influenced by different carbon sources, but the product formed was indistinguishable in molecular and microscopic features.

Significance and Impact of the Study:  Our studies for the first time examined the influence of different carbon sources on the rate of cellulose production by Ga. xylinus ATCC 53524, and the molecular and microscopic features of the cellulose produced.