Influence of different carbon sources on bacterial cellulose production by Gluconacetobacter xylinus strain ATCC 53524
Article first published online: 16 MAR 2009
© 2009 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2009 The Society for Applied Microbiology
Journal of Applied Microbiology
Volume 107, Issue 2, pages 576–583, August 2009
How to Cite
Mikkelsen, D., Flanagan, B.M., Dykes, G.A. and Gidley, M.J. (2009), Influence of different carbon sources on bacterial cellulose production by Gluconacetobacter xylinus strain ATCC 53524. Journal of Applied Microbiology, 107: 576–583. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2672.2009.04226.x
- Issue published online: 9 JUL 2009
- Article first published online: 16 MAR 2009
- 2008/1337: received 31 July 2008, revised 12 December 2008 and accepted 27 December 2008
- bacterial cellulose;
- Gluconacetobacter xylinus;
- Hestrin–Schramm medium;
- NMR spectroscopy;
- scanning electron microscopy
Aims: To determine the effect of carbon sources on cellulose produced by Gluconacetobacter xylinus strain ATCC 53524, and to characterize the purity and structural features of the cellulose produced.
Methods and Results: Modified Hestrin Schramm medium containing the carbon sources mannitol, glucose, glycerol, fructose, sucrose or galactose were inoculated with Ga. xylinus strain ATCC 53524. Plate counts indicated that all carbon sources supported growth of the strain. Sucrose and glycerol gave the highest cellulose yields of 3·83 and 3·75 g l−1 respectively after 96 h fermentation, primarily due to a surge in cellulose production in the last 12 h. Mannitol, fructose or glucose resulted in consistent rates of cellulose production and yields of >2·5 g l−1. Solid state 13C CP/MAS NMR revealed that irrespective of the carbon source, the cellulose produced by ATCC 53524 was pure and highly crystalline. Scanning electron micrographs illustrated the densely packed network of cellulose fibres within the pellicles and that the different carbon sources did not markedly alter the micro-architecture of the resulting cellulose pellicles.
Conclusions: The production rate of bacterial cellulose by Ga. xylinus (ATCC 53524) was influenced by different carbon sources, but the product formed was indistinguishable in molecular and microscopic features.
Significance and Impact of the Study: Our studies for the first time examined the influence of different carbon sources on the rate of cellulose production by Ga. xylinus ATCC 53524, and the molecular and microscopic features of the cellulose produced.