Heterogeneity and phylogenetic relationships of community-associated methicillin-sensitive/resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolates in healthy dogs, cats and their owners
Article first published online: 14 NOV 2011
© 2011 The Authors. Journal of Applied Microbiology © 2011 The Society for Applied Microbiology
Journal of Applied Microbiology
Volume 112, Issue 1, pages 205–213, January 2012
How to Cite
Wan, M.T., Fu, S.Y., Lo, Y.P., Huang, T.M., Cheng, M.M. and Chou, C.C. (2012), Heterogeneity and phylogenetic relationships of community-associated methicillin-sensitive/resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolates in healthy dogs, cats and their owners. Journal of Applied Microbiology, 112: 205–213. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2672.2011.05179.x
- Issue published online: 13 DEC 2011
- Article first published online: 14 NOV 2011
- Accepted manuscript online: 18 OCT 2011 11:05AM EST
- 2011/1181: received 14 July 2011, revised 21 September 2011 and accepted 6 October 2011
- antimicrobial susceptibility test;
- enterotoxin genes;
- pulsed-field gel electrophoresis;
- staphylococcal chromosome cassette mec
Aims: To investigate the distribution of staphylococcal enterotoxin genes (se) and the molecular features of community-associated methicillin-sensitive/resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MSSA/MRSA) isolates in the nostrils of healthy pets and their owners.
Methods and Results: A total of 114 Staph. aureus isolates were identified from 1563 nasal swab samples, and CA-MRSA accounted for 20·2% (n = 23) of the total identified isolates. CA-MRSA isolates (91·3%, 21/23) harboured higher percentage of se than did CA-MSSA isolates (58·2%, 53/91) (P < 0·01), and the two highest se profiles of CA-MRSA were seb-sek-seq (42·9%, 9/21) and seb-sek-seq-sep (28·6%, 6/21). Of the MSSAs, 42·8% (39/91) were resistant to at least one antimicrobial drug and 8·8% (8/91) were multidrug resistant (MDR). We identified nine staphylocoagulase (SC) types (I–VIII and X) and three multilocus sequence types (ST59-MRSA-IV/V, ST-239-MRSA-V and ST241-MRSA-V). SC VII (23·4%, 22/94), a staphylococcal food poisoning isolate found mainly in Japan, and ST-59-MRSA-IV/V (85%, 17/20), a widespread CA-MRSA clone found mainly in Taiwan, both were the most predominant types. Phylogenetic analysis together with se and molecular characteristics obtained using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis showed that high levels of antimicrobial resistance and the se-carrying clone ST59-MRSA-IV/V-SC VII were all clustered in genogroup 5.
Conclusions: The CA-MRSA clone of se-carrying-MDR-ST-59-IV/V-SC VII was identified predominantly in this study, and this clone might play a significant role in staphylococcal food poisoning in community settings.
Significance and Impact of the Study: To our knowledge, this is the first study focussing on enterotoxin-carrying CA-MRSA/MSSA in pets and their owners, and the results support the future warnings in animal–human bond caused by CA-staphylococci in the commonwealth and the need to take cautions worldwide.