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Phylogeography of the lacertid lizard, Psammodromus algirus, in Iberia and across the Strait of Gibraltar

Authors

  • S. Carranza,

    Corresponding author
    1. Departament de Biologia Animal, Facultat de Biologia, Universitat de Barcelona, Spain
      * S. Carranza, Departament de Biologia Animal, Universitat de Barcelona, Av. Diagonal 645, E-08028 Barcelona, Spain. E-mail: scarranza@ub.edu
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  • D. J. Harris,

    1. Centro de Investigação em Biodiversidade e Recursos Genéticos (CIBIO) and Departamento de Zoologia e Antropologia, Faculdade de Cîencias, Universidade do Porto, Vila do Conde, Portugal
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  • E. N. Arnold,

    1. Department of Zoology, The Natural History Museum, London, UK
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  • V. Batista,

    1. Centro de Investigação em Biodiversidade e Recursos Genéticos (CIBIO) and Departamento de Zoologia e Antropologia, Faculdade de Cîencias, Universidade do Porto, Vila do Conde, Portugal
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  • J. P. Gonzalez de la Vega

    1. Apartado de Correos 1209, Huleva, Spain
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* S. Carranza, Departament de Biologia Animal, Universitat de Barcelona, Av. Diagonal 645, E-08028 Barcelona, Spain. E-mail: scarranza@ub.edu

Abstract

Aim  To determine genetic substructuring within the lacertid lizard Psammodromus algirus. To compare levels of variation across a geological barrier, the Strait of Gibraltar, and to compare this against the known age of the barrier using a molecular clock hypothesis. To compare the effect of the barrier within this species with previously published data from other organisms.

Location  The Iberian Peninsula and North Africa.

Methods  Partial sequences from the mitochondrial cytochrome b, 12S rRNA and 16S rRNA genes were obtained from 101 specimens belonging to the subfamily Gallotiinae and used in this study. The data set was aligned using ClustalX and phylogenetic trees produced using both maximum-parsimony and maximum-likelihood methods. Maximum likelihood estimates of divergence times for the combined data set (12S + 16S + cytochrome b) were obtained after discovery of lineage rate constancy across the tree using a likelihood ratio test.

Results Psammodromus algirus contains divergent eastern and western mtDNA clades within the Iberian Peninsula. The western clade has northern and southern lineages in Iberia and one in North Africa. This phylogeographical pattern indicates that the lizard invaded North Africa after the opening of the Strait, presumably by natural rafting.

Main conclusions  As in several other species, current patterns of genetic diversity within P. algirus are not directly related to the opening of the Strait of Gibraltar. Widespread sampling on both sides of the barrier is necessary to determine its effect on species in this area accurately.

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