SEARCH

SEARCH BY CITATION

References

  • Adler, G.H. (1996) The island syndrome in isolated populations of a tropical forest rodent. Oecologia, 108, 694700.
  • Adler, G.H. & Levins, R. (1994) The island syndrome in rodent populations. Quarterly Review of Biology, 69, 473490.
  • Allen, J.A. (1878) The influence of physical conditions in the genesis of species. Radical Review, 1, 108140.
  • Anderson, R.P. & Handley, C.O. (2002) Dwarfism in insular sloths: biogeography, selection and evolutionary rate. Evolution, 56, 10451058.
  • Ashley, M.V., Wilson, M.F., Pergams, O.R.W., O'Dowd, D.J., Gende, S.M. & Brown, J.S. (2003) Evolutionary enlightened management. Biological Conservation, 111, 115123.
  • Ashton, K.G. (2002a) Patterns of within-species body size variation in birds: strong evidence for Bergmann's rule. Global Ecology and Biogeography, 11, 505523.
  • Ashton, K.G. (2002b) Do amphibians follow Bergmann's rule? Canadian Journal of Zoology, 80, 708716.
  • Ashton, K.G. & Feldman, C.R. (2003) Bergmann's rule in non-avian reptiles: turtles follow it, lizards and snakes reverse it. Evolution, 57, 11511163.
  • Ashton, K.G., Tracy, M.C. & De Queiroz, A. (2000) Is Bergmann's rule valid for mammals? American Naturalist, 156, 390415.
  • Bergmann, C. (1847) Über die Verhältnisse der Wärmeökonomie der Thiere zu ihren Grösse. Göttinger Studien, 1, 595708.
  • Bindon, J.R. & Baker, P.T. (1997) Bergmann's rule and the thrifty genotype. American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 104, 201210.
  • Blackburn, T.M. & Gaston, K.J. (eds) (2003) Macroecology: concepts and consequences. Blackwell Scientific Publications, Oxford, UK.
  • Boback, S.M. (2003) Body size evolution in snakes: evidence from island populations. Copeia, 2003, 8194.
  • Boback, S.M. & Guyer, C. (2003) Empirical evidence for an optimal body size in snakes. Evolution, 57, 345351.
  • Brown, J.H. (1995) Macroecology. University of Chicago Press, Chicago, IL.
  • Brown, P., Sutikna, T., Morwood, M.J., Soejono, R.P., Jatmiko, Saptomo, E.W. & Due, R.A. (2004) A new small-bodied hominin from the Late Pleistocene of Flores, Indonesia. Nature, 431, 10551061.
  • Campbell, T.S. & Echternacht, A.C. (2003) Introduced species as moving targets: changes in body sizes of introduced lizards following experimental introductions and historical invasions. Biological Invasions, 5, 193212.
  • Case, T.J. (1976) Body size differences between populations of the chuckwalla, Sauromalus obesus. Ecology, 57, 313323.
  • Case, T.J. (1982) Ecology and evolution of insular gigantic chuckwallas, Sauromalus hispidus and Sauromalus varius. Iguanas of the world (ed. by G.M.Burghardt and A.S.Rand), pp. 184212. Noyes Publications, Park Ridge, NJ.
  • Case, T.J. (2002) Reptiles. A new island biogeography of the Sea of Cortez (ed. by T.J.Case, M.L.Cody and E.Ezcurra), pp. 221270. Oxford University Press, Oxford, UK.
  • Channell, R. & Lomolino, M.V. (2000a) Dynamic biogeography and conservation of endangered species. Nature, 403, 8486.
  • Channell, R. & Lomolino, M.V. (2000b) Trajectories toward extinction: dynamics of geographic range collapse. Journal of Biogeography, 27, 169179.
  • Clegg, S.M. & Owens, I.P.F. (2002) The ‘island rule’ in birds: medium body size and its ecological explanation. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London Series B, Biological Sciences, 269, 13591365.
  • Colyvan, M. & Ginzburg, L.R. (2003) Laws of nature and laws of ecology. Oikos, 101, 649653.
  • Cushman, J.H., Lawton, J.H. & Manly, B.F.J. (1993) Latitudinal patterns in European ant assemblages: variation in species richness and body size. Oecologia, 95, 3037.
  • Fahrig, L. (2002) Habitat fragmentation – effect of habitat fragmentation on the extinction threshold: a synthesis. Ecological Applications, 12, 346354.
  • Foster, J.B. (1963) The evolution of native land mammals of the Queen Charlotte Islands and the problem of insularity. PhD Thesis, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada.
  • Foster, J.B. (1964) Evolution of mammals on islands. Nature, 202, 234235.
  • Fridley, J.D., Qian, H., White, P.S. & Palmer, M.W. (2006) Plant species invasions along the latitudinal gradient in the United States. Ecology (in press).
  • Gaston, K.J. (2003) The structure and dynamics of geographic ranges. Oxford University Press, Oxford, UK.
  • Gaston, K.J., Blackburn, T.M. & Spicer, J.I. (1998) Rapoport's rule: time for an epitaph? Trends in Ecology and Evolution, 13, 7074.
  • Gilchrist, G.W., Huey, R.B. & Serra, L. (2001) Rapid evolution of wing size clines in Drosophila subobscura. Genetica, 112–113, 273286.
  • Gloger, C.L. (1883) Das Abandern der Vogel durch Einfluss des Klimas. A. Schulz, Breslau, Germany.
  • Gotelli, N.J. & Ellison, A.M. (2004) A primer of ecological statistics. Sinauer Associates, Sunderland, MA.
  • Gould, G.C. & MacFadden, B.J. (2004) Gigantism, dwarfism, and Cope's Rule, ‘Nothing in evolution makes sense without a phylogeny’. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History, 285, 219237.
  • Hawkins, B.A. & Diniz-Filho, J.A.F. (2006) Beyond Rapoport's rule: evaluating range size patterns of New World birds in a two-dimensional framework. Global Ecology and Biogeography (in press).
  • Heaney, L.R. (1978) Island area and body size of insular mammals: evidence from the tri-colored squirrel (Calliosciurus prevosti) of Southwest Africa. Evolution, 32, 2944.
  • Huey, R.B., Gilchrist, G.W., Carlson, M.L., Berrigan, D. & Serra, L. (2000) Rapid evolution of a geographic cline in an introduced species of fly. Science, 287, 308309.
  • Huey, R.B., Gilchrist, G.W. & Hendry, A.P. (2005) Using invasive species to study evolution: case studies with Drosophila and salmon. Species invasions: insights into ecology, evolution and biogeography (ed. by D.F.Sax, J.J.Stachowicz and S.D.Gaines), pp. 139164. Sinauer Associates, Sunderland, MA.
  • Huston, M.A. (1994) Biological diversity: the coexistence of species on changing landscapes. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK.
  • Jianu, C.-M. & Weishampel, D.B. (1999) The smallest of the largest: a new look at possible dwarfing in sauropod dinosaurs. Geologie en Mijnbouw Palaeontology, 36, 361385.
  • Johnston, R.F. & Selander, R.K. (1964) House sparrows: rapid evolution of races in North America. Science, 144, 548550.
  • Jordan, D.S. (1892) Temperature and vertebrae: a study in evolution. Wilder-Quarter Century Books, New York.
  • Kaspari, M. & Vargo, E. (1995) Does colony size buffer environmental variation? Bergmann's rule and social insects. The American Naturalist, 145, 610632.
  • Laliberte, A.S. & Ripple, W.J. (2004) Range contractions of North American carnivores and ungulates. BioScience, 54, 123138.
  • Lawton, J.H. (1999) Are there any general laws in ecology? Oikos, 84, 177192.
  • Lomolino, M.V. (1983) Island biogeography, immigrant selection, and mammalian body size on islands. PhD Thesis, State University of New York at Binghampton.
  • Lomolino, M.V. (1985) Body size of mammals on islands: the island rule re-examined. The American Naturalist, 125, 310316.
  • Lomolino, M.V. (2005) Body size evolution in insular vertebrates: generality of the island rule. Journal of Biogeography, 32, 16831699.
  • Lomolino, M.V. & Channell, R. (1995) Splendid isolation: patterns of range collapse in endangered mammals. Journal of Mammalogy, 76, 335347.
  • Lomolino, M.V. & Heaney, L.R. (eds) (2004) Frontiers of biogeography. Sinauer Associates, Sunderland, MA.
  • Lomolino, M.V. & Weiser, M.D. (2001) Towards a more general species–area relationship: diversity on all islands, great and small. Journal of Biogeography, 28, 431445.
  • Lomolino, M.V., Sax, D.F. & Brown, J.H. (eds) (2004) Foundations of biogeography. University of Chicago Press, Chicago, IL.
  • Lomolino, M.V., Riddle, B.R. & Brown, J.H. (2005) Biogeography, 3rd edn. Sinauer Associates, Sunderland, MA.
  • Luck, G.W. (2005) An introduction to ecological thresholds. Biological Conservation, 124, 299300.
  • Marquet, P.A. & Taper, M.L. (1998) On size and area: patterns of mammalian body size extremes across landmasses. Evolutionary Ecology, 12, 127139.
  • Mayr, E. (1956) Geographical character gradients and climatic adaptation. Evolution, 10, 105108.
  • McClain, C.R., Boyer, A.G. & Rosenberg, G. (2006) The island rule and the evolution of body size in the deep sea. Journal of Biogeography. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2699.2006.01545.x.
  • McNab, B.K. (2001) Functional adaptations to island life in the West Indies. Biogeography of the West Indies: patterns and perspectives, 2nd edn (ed. by C.A.Woods and F.E.Sergile), pp. 5562. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL.
  • McNab, B.K. (2002) Minimizing energy expenditure facilitates vertebrate persistence on oceanic islands. Ecology Letters, 5, 693704.
  • Meiri, S. & Dayan, T. (2003) On the validity of Bergmann's rule. Journal of Biogeography, 30, 331351.
  • Meiri, S., Dayan, T. & Simberloff, D. (2004a) Body size of insular carnivores: little support for the island rule. The American Naturalist, 163, 469479.
  • Meiri, S., Dayan, T. & Simberloff, D. (2004b) Carnivores, biases and Bergmann's rule. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, 81, 579588.
  • Meiri, S., Dayan, T. & Simberloff, D. (2006) The generality of the island rule reexamined. Journal of Biogeography, 33, 15711577.
  • Millien, V. & Damuth, J. (2004) Climate change and size evolution in an island rodent species: new perspectives on the island rule. Evolution, 58, 13531360.
  • Millien, V., Lyons, S.K., Olson, L., Smith, F.A., Wilson, A.B. & Yom-Tov, Y. (2006) Ecotypic variation in the context of global climate change: revisiting the rules. Ecological Letters, 9, 853869.
  • Morwood, M.J., Soejono, R.P., Roberts, R.G., Sutikna, T., Turney, C.S.M., Westaway, K.E., Rink, W.J., Zhao, J.-X., Van den Bergh, G.D., Due, T.A., Hobbs, D.R., Moore, M.W., Bird, M.I. & Fifield, L.K. (2004) Archaeology and age of a new hominin from Flores in eastern Indonesia. Nature, 431, 10871091.
  • Muradian, R. (2001) Ecological thresholds: a survey. Ecological Economics, 38, 724.
  • Murray, B.M. Jr (2000) Universal laws and predictive theory in ecology and evolution. Oikos, 89, 403408.
  • O'Hara, R.B. (2005) An anarchist's guide to ecological theory. Or, we don't need no stinkin’ laws. Oikos, 110, 390393.
  • Palkovacs, E.P. (2003) Explaining adaptive shifts in body size on islands: a life history approach. Oikos, 103, 3744.
  • Patterson, B.D., Kays, R.W., Kasiki, S.M. & Sebestyen, V.M. (2006) Developmental effects of climate on the lion's mane. Journal of Mammalogy, 87, 193200.
  • Pregill, G.K. & Steadman, D.W. (2004) South Pacific iguanas: human impacts and a new species. Journal of Herpetology, 38, 1521.
  • Rapoport, E.H. (1982) Areography: geographic strategies of species (translation by B. Drausel). Pergamon, Oxford, UK.
  • Roberts, D.F. (1953) Body weight, race and climate. American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 11, 533558.
  • Roberts, D.F. (1978) Climate and human variability, 2nd edn. Benjamin Cummings, Menlo Park, CA.
  • Ruff, C.B. (1994) Morphological adaptation to climate in modern and fossil hominids. Yearbook of Physical Anthropology, 37, 65107.
  • Ruggiero, A. & Hawkins, B.A. (2006) Mapping macroecology. Global Ecology and Biogeography. doi: 10.1111/j.1466-822x.2006.00238.x.
  • Safriel, U.N., Volis, S. & Kark, S. (1994) Core and peripheral populations and global climate change. Israel Journal of Plant Sciences, 42, 331345.
  • Sander, P.M., Mateus, O., Laven, T. & Knotschke, N. (2006) Bone histology indicates insular dwarfism in a new Late Jurassic sauropod dinosaur. Nature, 441, 739741.
  • Sax, D.F. (2001) Latitudinal gradients and geographic ranges of exotic species: implications for biogeography. Journal of Biogeography, 28, 139150.
  • Schmidt, N.M. & Jensen, P.M. (2003) Changes in mammalian body length over 175 years – adaptations to a fragmented landscape? Conservation Ecology, 7, 6 http://www.consecol.org/vol7/iss2/art6/ .
  • Schmidt, N.M. & Jensen, P.M. (2005) Concomitant patterns in avian and mammalian body length changes in Denmark. Ecology and Society, 10, 5 http://www.ecologyandsociety.org/vol10/iss2/art5/ .
  • Smith, K.F. & Gaines, S.D. (2003) Rapoport's bathymetric rule and the latitudinal species diversity gradient for Northeast Pacific fishes and Northwest Atlantic gastropods: evidence against a causal link. Journal of Biogeography, 30, 11531159.
  • St. Louis, V.L. & Barlow, J.C. (1991) Morphometric analyses of introduced and ancestral populations of the Eurasian tree sparrow. Wilson Bulletin, 103, 112.
  • Stevens, G.C. (1989) The latitudinal gradient in geographic range: how so many species coexist in the tropics. The American Naturalist, 133, 240256.
  • Stevens, G.C. (1992) The elevational gradient in altitudinal range: an extension of Rapoport's latitudinal rule to altitude. The American Naturalist, 140, 893911.
  • Stevens, G.C. (1996) Extending Rapoport's rule to marine fishes. Journal of Biogeography, 23, 149154.
  • Toms, J.D. & Lesperance, M.L. (2003) Piece-wise regression: a tool for identifying ecological thresholds. Ecology, 84, 20342041.
  • Towns, D.R. & Daugherty, C.H. (1994) Patterns of range contractions and extinctions in the New Zealand herpetofauana following human colonization. New Zealand Journal of Zoology, 21, 325339.
  • Van Valen, L. (1973a) Body size and the number of plants and animals. Evolution, 27, 2735.
  • Van Valen, L. (1973b) Pattern and the balance of nature. Evolutionary Theory, 1, 3149.
  • White, T.A. & Searle, J.B. (2006) Factors explaining increased body size in common shrews (Sorex araneus) on Scottish Islands. Journal of Biogeography. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2699.2006.01599.x.
  • Wikelski, M. (2005) Evolution of body size in Galapagos marine iguanas. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London Series B, Biological Sciences, 272, 19851993.