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Panbiogeographical analysis of the genus Bomarea (Alstroemeriaceae)

Authors

  • Fernando Alzate,

    1. Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Instituto de Biología, Universidad de Antioquia, Medellín, Colombia
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  • Mario Alberto Quijano-Abril,

    1. Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Instituto de Biología, Universidad de Antioquia, Medellín, Colombia
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  • Juan J. Morrone

    Corresponding author
    1. Museo de Zoología ‘Alfonso L. Herrera’, Departamento de Biología Evolutiva, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México (UNAM), Mexico D.F., Mexico
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*Juan J. Morrone, Museo de Zoología ‘Alfonso L. Herrera’, Departamento de Biología Evolutiva, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México (UNAM), Apartado postal 70-399, 04510 Mexico D.F., Mexico. E-mail: jjm@hp.fciencias.unam.mx

Abstract

Aim  A panbiogeographical analysis of the genus Bomarea was undertaken in order to determine generalized tracks and biogeographical nodes, and to evaluate the current distribution of the genus based on the available tectonic information and the biogeographical regionalization of Latin America.

Location  The Neotropical region from northern Mexico to northern Argentina, and the Nearctic and Andean regions.

Method  A total of 2205 records of 101 species were analysed, representing 95% of the species assigned to Bomarea. Localities were represented on maps and their individual tracks were drawn. Based on their comparison, generalized tracks were detected and mapped. Nodes were identified in the areas where different generalized tracks were superimposed.

Results  Five generalized tracks were recovered. One is located in the Eastern Central America and Western Panamanian Isthmus provinces (Caribbean subregion, Neotropical region), which was supported by three species of Central American distribution. The four remaining generalized tracks were located in South America, in the North Andean Paramo, Cauca and Puna biogeographical provinces. These tracks were supported by species of Bomarea with an Andean distribution. Biogeographical nodes were established in the Central Andean region of Colombia, central Ecuador and central Peru.

Main conclusions  The nodes obtained for Bomarea support a hybrid origin for the Andean region, which presents diverse components from both northern and southern South America. Likewise, the track recovered between Colombia and Ecuador includes Andean and Neotropical areas, providing further support for this hypothesis. The nodes obtained are coherent with vicariant elements evident for Bomarea. Species of three clades proposed for Bomarea are distributed in specific generalized tracks.

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