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Keywords:

  • Biogeography;
  • diversity;
  • endemism;
  • faunal regions;
  • freshwater mussels;
  • Margaritiferidae;
  • North America;
  • phylogeography;
  • Unionidae

Abstract

Aim  North America harbours the most diverse freshwater mussel fauna on Earth. This fauna has high endemism at the continental scale and within individual river systems. Previous faunal classifications for North America were based on intuitive, subjective assessments of species distributions, primarily the occurrence of endemic species, and do not portray continent-wide patterns of faunal similarity. The aim of this study is to provide an analytical portrayal of patterns of mussel diversity in a hierarchical framework that informs the biogeographical history of the fauna.

Location  The study considered the mussel fauna of North America from the Rio Grande system northwards.

Methods  Patterns of mussel faunal similarity in 126 river systems or lake watersheds across North America were examined. The dataset was developed from the literature and consisted of recent species presence/absence (282 species) in each drainage unit; subspecies were not included. Patterns of mussel diversity were examined with hierarchical cluster analysis, based on a pairwise distance matrix between all drainage units.

Results  Cluster analysis revealed 17 faunal provinces within four major faunal regions: Mississippian, Atlantic, Eastern Gulf and Pacific. The Mississippian Region dominates the North American fauna with 11 provinces, including five not recognized by previous classifications: Mississippi Embayment, Upper Mississippi, Great Plains, Ohioan and Pontchartrain–Pearl–Pascagoula. Within the Eastern Gulf Region (containing three provinces), the Escambia–Choctawhatchee Province is distinctive from the Apalachicolan Province, under which it was previously subsumed. Patterns of diversity in the Atlantic Region (two provinces) and Pacific Region (one province) were similar to previous classifications.

Main conclusions  The classification proposed in this study largely corroborates earlier schemes based on the occurrence of endemic species but identifies additional heterogeneity that reflects unique assemblages of widely distributed species. The study proposes a hierarchical structure that illustrates relationships among these provinces. Although some provinces in the Mississippian Region have high endemism, all Mississippian provinces share a group of widely distributed species. The Atlantic and Eastern Gulf regions have distinctive, endemic faunas suggesting limited past connectivity with the Mississippian Region. The Pacific Region is the most distinct fauna in North America and bears close affinity to the Eurasian mussel fauna.