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Keywords:

  • Ecological niche modelling;
  • geographic parthenogenesis;
  • glacial refugia;
  • New Zealand;
  • Phasmatodea;
  • phylogeography;
  • stick insect

Abstract

Aim  Increasing our understanding of the effects of the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) and determining the location of refugia requires studies on widely distributed species with dense sampling of populations. We have reconstructed the biogeographic history of Clitarchus hookeri (White), a widespread species of New Zealand stick insect that exhibits geographic parthenogenesis, using phylogeographic analysis and ecological niche modelling.

Location  New Zealand.

Methods  We used DNA sequence data from the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I gene to reconstruct phylogenetic relationships among haplotypes from C. hookeri and two undescribed Clitarchus species. We also used distribution data from our own field surveys and museum records to reconstruct the geographic distribution of C. hookeri during the present and the LGM, using ecological niche modelling.

Results  The ecological niche models showed that the geographic distribution of C. hookeri has expanded dramatically since the LGM. Our model predicted large areas of suitable LGM habitat in upper North Island, and small patches along the east coast of South Island. The phylogeographic analysis shows that populations in the northern half of North Island contain much higher levels of genetic variation than those from southern North Island and South Island, and is congruent with the ecological niche model. The distribution of bisexual populations is also non-random, with males completely absent from South Island and very rare in southern North Island.

Main conclusions  During the LGM C. hookeri was most likely restricted to several refugia in upper North Island and one or more smaller refugia along the east coast of South Island. The unisexual populations predominate in post-glacial landscapes and are clearly favoured in the recolonization of such areas. Our study exemplifies the utility of integrating ecological niche modelling and phylogeographic analysis.