Aim Although climatic fluctuations occurred world-wide during the Pleistocene, the severity of glacial and drought events – and hence their influence on animal and plant biogeography – differed among regions. Many Holarctic species were forced to warmer-climate refugia during glacial periods, leaving the genetic signature of recent expansion and gene flow among modern-day populations. Montane south-eastern Australia experienced less extreme glaciation, but the effects of drier and colder climatic conditions over this period on biotic distributions, and hence on the present-day genetic structure of animal and plant populations, are poorly known.
Location South-eastern Australia.
Methods The endangered Blue Mountains water skink (Eulamprus leuraensis) is a viviparous lizard known from fewer than 40 isolated small swamps at 560–1060 m elevation in south-eastern Australia. We conducted molecular phylogenetic, dating and population genetics analyses using the mitochondrial NADH dehydrogenase 4 (ND4) of 224 individuals of E. leuraensis sampled across the species’ distribution.
Results Ancient divergences in haplotype groups between lizards from the Blue Mountains and the Newnes Plateau, and strong genetic differences, even between swamps separated by only a few kilometres, suggest that the species has persisted as a series of relatively isolated populations within its current distribution for about a million years. Presumably, habitat patches similar to current-day swamps persisted throughout glacial–interglacial cycles in this region, allowing the development of high levels of genetic structuring within and among present-day populations.
Main conclusions Our results suggest that less extreme glacial conditions occurred in the Southern Hemisphere compared with the Northern Hemisphere, allowing cold-adapted species (such as E. leuraensis) to persist in montane areas. However, additional studies are needed before we can assemble a comprehensive view of the impact of Pleistocene climatic variation on the phylogeography of Southern Hemisphere taxa.
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