Habitats of relict terrestrial snails in southern Siberia: lessons for the reconstruction of palaeoenvironments of full-glacial Europe

Authors

  • Michal Horsák,

    Corresponding author
    1. Department of Botany and Zoology, Masaryk University, Kotlářská 2, CZ-611 37 Brno, Czech Republic
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  • Milan Chytrý,

    1. Department of Botany and Zoology, Masaryk University, Kotlářská 2, CZ-611 37 Brno, Czech Republic
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  • Beata M. Pokryszko,

    1. Museum of Natural History, Wrocław University, Sienkiewicza 21, PL-50-335 Wrocław, Poland
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  • Jiří Danihelka,

    1. Department of Botany and Zoology, Masaryk University, Kotlářská 2, CZ-611 37 Brno, Czech Republic
    2. Institute of Botany, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Poříčí 3a, CZ-603 00 Brno, Czech Republic
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  • Nikolai Ermakov,

    1. Central Siberian Botanical Garden, Russian Academy of Sciences, Zolotodolinskaya 101, Novosibirsk, 630090, Russia
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  • Michal Hájek,

    1. Department of Botany and Zoology, Masaryk University, Kotlářská 2, CZ-611 37 Brno, Czech Republic
    2. Institute of Botany, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Poříčí 3a, CZ-603 00 Brno, Czech Republic
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  • Petra Hájková,

    1. Department of Botany and Zoology, Masaryk University, Kotlářská 2, CZ-611 37 Brno, Czech Republic
    2. Institute of Botany, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Poříčí 3a, CZ-603 00 Brno, Czech Republic
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  • Kateřina Kintrová,

    1. Department of Botany and Zoology, Masaryk University, Kotlářská 2, CZ-611 37 Brno, Czech Republic
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  • Martin Kočí,

    1. Department of Botany and Zoology, Masaryk University, Kotlářská 2, CZ-611 37 Brno, Czech Republic
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  • Svatava Kubešová,

    1. Department of Botany and Zoology, Masaryk University, Kotlářská 2, CZ-611 37 Brno, Czech Republic
    2. Department of Botany, Moravian Museum, Hviezdoslavova 29a, CZ-627 00 Brno, Czech Republic
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  • Pavel Lustyk,

    1. Department of Botany and Zoology, Masaryk University, Kotlářská 2, CZ-611 37 Brno, Czech Republic
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  • Zdenka Otýpková,

    1. Department of Botany and Zoology, Masaryk University, Kotlářská 2, CZ-611 37 Brno, Czech Republic
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  • Barbora Pelánková,

    1. Department of Botany and Zoology, Masaryk University, Kotlářská 2, CZ-611 37 Brno, Czech Republic
    2. Institute of Botany, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Poříčí 3a, CZ-603 00 Brno, Czech Republic
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  • Milan Valachovič

    1. Institute of Botany, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Dúbravská cesta 14, SK-845 23 Bratislava, Slovakia
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Michal Horsák, Department of Botany and Zoology, Masaryk University, Kotlářská 2, CZ-611 37 Brno, Czech Republic.
E-mail: horsak@sci.muni.cz

Abstract

Aim  Shells of fossil molluscs are important for palaeoecological reconstructions. However, the habitat requirements of snail species typical of central European full-glacial loess sediments are poorly known because most of them became very rare or extinct in Europe. The recent discovery of an almost complete extant assemblage of such species in mountainous regions of central Asia enables more precise characterization of their habitats, which may significantly improve reconstructions of Pleistocene environments.

Location  Altai Mountains, Russia.

Methods  Terrestrial snail assemblages, vegetation composition and selected environmental variables were recorded at 118 sites along a gradient of climatic continentality in the Russian Altai. Habitat characteristics of sites where species typical of the full-glacial period occurred were described using a classification tree.

Results  Seven of the eight species that are typical of central European full-glacial loess sediments were found in the study area. They were confined to cool areas with January mean temperatures below −17 °C, but occurred mainly in sheltered habitats with a warmer microclimate, such as scrub or open woodland. Pupilla loessica and Vallonia tenuilabris had the broadest habitat range, occurring from woodland to dry steppe. Unexpectedly, Columella columella, Pupilla alpicola, Vertigo genesii, V. parcedentata and V. pseudosubstriata were found mainly in wooded fens and shrubby tundra rather than in open steppe. Most of these seven species were recorded in base-rich wooded fens. Very dry open steppe habitats usually supported no snails.

Main conclusions  Habitat ranges of the studied snails in the Altai indicate that the full-glacial landscapes of central European lowlands that harboured these species were not completely dominated by open and dry loess steppe. Most probably they contained a significant component of shrubby vegetation, patches of wet habitats, and probably also areas of woodland at sites with a favourable mesoclimate.

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