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Contrasting patterns in elevational diversity between microorganisms and macroorganisms

Authors

  • Jianjun Wang,

    1. State Key Laboratory of Lake Science & Environment, Nanjing Institute of Geography & Limnology, CAS, Nanjing 210008, China
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  • Janne Soininen,

    Corresponding author
    1. Department of Environmental Sciences, PO Box 65, FIN-00014, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland
      Ji Shen, State Key Laboratory of Lake Science & Environment, Nanjing Institute of Geography & Limnology, CAS, Nanjing 210008, China; Janne Soininen, Department of Environmental Sciences, PO Box 65, FIN-00014, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.
      E-mail: jishen@niglas.ac.cn; janne.soininen@helsinki.fi
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  • Yong Zhang,

    1. State Key Laboratory of Lake Science & Environment, Nanjing Institute of Geography & Limnology, CAS, Nanjing 210008, China
    2. Life Sciences College, Anhui Normal University, Wuhu 241000, China
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  • Beixin Wang,

    1. Department of Entomology, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095, China
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  • Xiangdong Yang,

    1. State Key Laboratory of Lake Science & Environment, Nanjing Institute of Geography & Limnology, CAS, Nanjing 210008, China
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  • Ji Shen

    Corresponding author
    1. State Key Laboratory of Lake Science & Environment, Nanjing Institute of Geography & Limnology, CAS, Nanjing 210008, China
      Ji Shen, State Key Laboratory of Lake Science & Environment, Nanjing Institute of Geography & Limnology, CAS, Nanjing 210008, China; Janne Soininen, Department of Environmental Sciences, PO Box 65, FIN-00014, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.
      E-mail: jishen@niglas.ac.cn; janne.soininen@helsinki.fi
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Ji Shen, State Key Laboratory of Lake Science & Environment, Nanjing Institute of Geography & Limnology, CAS, Nanjing 210008, China; Janne Soininen, Department of Environmental Sciences, PO Box 65, FIN-00014, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.
E-mail: jishen@niglas.ac.cn; janne.soininen@helsinki.fi

Abstract

Aim  Data and analyses of elevational gradients in diversity have been central to the development and evaluation of a range of general theories of biodiversity. Elevational diversity patterns have, however, been severely understudied for microbes, which often represent decomposer subsystems. Consequently, generalities in the patterns of elevational diversity across different trophic levels remain poorly understood. Our aim was to examine elevational gradients in the diversity of macroinvertebrates, diatoms and bacteria along a stony stream that covered a large elevational gradient.

Location  Laojun Mountain, Yunnan province, China.

Methods  The sampling scheme included 26 sites spaced at elevational intervals of 89 m from 1820 to 4050 m elevation along a stony stream. Macroinvertebrate and diatom richness were determined based on the morphology of the specimens. Taxonomic richness for bacteria was quantified using a molecular fingerprinting method. Over 50 environmental variables were measured at each site to quantify environmental variables that could correlate with the patterns of diversity. We used eigenvector-based spatial filters with multiple regressions to account for spatial autocorrelation.

Results  The bacterial richness followed an unexpected monotonic increase with elevation. Diatoms decreased monotonically, and macroinvertebrate richness showed a clear unimodal pattern with elevation. The unimodal richness pattern for macroinvertebrates was best explained by the mid-domain effect (r2 = 0.72). The diatom richness was best explained by the variation in nutrient supply, and the increase in bacterial richness with elevation may be related to an increased carbon supply.

Main conclusions  We found contrasting patterns in elevational diversity among the three studied multi-trophic groups comprising unicellular and multicellular aquatic taxa. We also found that there may be fundamental differences in the mechanisms underlying these species diversity patterns.

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