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Nestedness in island faunas: novel insights into island biogeography through butterfly community profiles of colonization ability and migration capacity


  • Roger L. H. Dennis,

    Corresponding author
    1. Department of Biological and Medical Sciences, Oxford Brookes University, Headington, Oxford OX3 0BP, UK
    2. Institute for Environment, Sustainability and Regeneration, Staffordshire University, Mellor Building, College Road, Stoke-on-Trent ST4 2DE, UK
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  • Peter B. Hardy,

    1. 81 Winstanley Road, Sale M33 2AT, UK
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  • Leonardo Dapporto

    1. Istituto Comprensivo Materna Elementere Media ‘Convenevole da Prato’ via 1° Maggio 40, 59100, Prato, Italy
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Roger L. H. Dennis, 4 Fairfax Drive, Wilmslow SK9 6EY, UK.


Aim  To relate variation in the migration capacity and colonization ability of island communities to island geography and species island occupancy.

Location  Islands off mainland Britain and Ireland.

Methods  Mean migration (transfer) capacity and colonization (establishment) ability (ecological indices), indexed from 12 ecological variables for 56 butterfly species living on 103 islands, were related to species nestedness, island and mainland source geography and indices using linear regression models, RLQ analysis and fourth-corner analysis. Random creation of faunas from source species, rank correlation and rank regression were used to examine differences between island and source ecological indices, and relationships to island geography.

Results  Island butterfly faunas are highly nested. The two ecological indices related closely to island occupancy, nestedness rank of species, island richness and geography. The key variables related to migration capacity were island area and isolation; for colonization ability they were area, isolation and longitude. Compared with colonization ability, migration capacity was found to correlate more strongly with island species occupancy and species richness. For island faunas, the means for both ecological indices decreased, and variation increased, with increasing island species richness. Mean colonization ability and migration capacity values were significantly higher for island faunas than for mainland source faunas, but these differences decreased with island latitude.

Main conclusions  The nested pattern of butterfly species on islands off mainland Britain and Ireland relates strongly to colonization ability but especially to migration capacity. Differences in colonization ability among species are most obvious for large, topographically varied islands. Generalists with abundant multiple resources and greater migration capacity are found on all islands, whereas specialists are restricted to large islands with varied and long-lived biotopes, and islands close to shore. The inference is that source–sink dynamics dominate butterfly distributions on British and Irish islands; species are capable of dispersing to new areas, but, with the exception of large and northern islands, facilities (resources) for permanent colonization are limited. The pattern of colonization ability and migration capacity is likely to be repeated for mainland areas, where such indices should provide useful independent measures for assessing the conservation status of faunas within spatial units.