Quaternary palaeoenvironmental oscillations drove the evolution of the Eurasian Carassius auratus complex (Cypriniformes, Cyprinidae)

Authors

  • Yun Gao,

    1. State Key Laboratory of Genetic Resources and Evolution and Yunnan Laboratory of Molecular Biology of Domestic Animals, Kunming Institute of Zoology, The Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming, China
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    • These authors contributed equally.

  • Shu-Yan Wang,

    1. State Key Laboratory of Genetic Resources and Evolution and Yunnan Laboratory of Molecular Biology of Domestic Animals, Kunming Institute of Zoology, The Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming, China
    2. School of Life Sciences, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, China
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    • These authors contributed equally.

  • Jing Luo,

    1. Laboratory of Conservation and Utilization of Bio-resources and Key Laboratory for Animal Genetic Diversity and Evolution of High Education in Yunnan Province, School of Life Sciences, Yunnan University, Kunming, China
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  • Robert W. Murphy,

    1. State Key Laboratory of Genetic Resources and Evolution and Yunnan Laboratory of Molecular Biology of Domestic Animals, Kunming Institute of Zoology, The Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming, China
    2. Centre for Biodiversity and Conservation Biology, Royal Ontario Museum, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
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  • Rui Du,

    1. Laboratory of Conservation and Utilization of Bio-resources and Key Laboratory for Animal Genetic Diversity and Evolution of High Education in Yunnan Province, School of Life Sciences, Yunnan University, Kunming, China
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  • Shi-Fang Wu,

    1. State Key Laboratory of Genetic Resources and Evolution and Yunnan Laboratory of Molecular Biology of Domestic Animals, Kunming Institute of Zoology, The Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming, China
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  • Chun-Ling Zhu,

    1. State Key Laboratory of Genetic Resources and Evolution and Yunnan Laboratory of Molecular Biology of Domestic Animals, Kunming Institute of Zoology, The Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming, China
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  • Yan Li,

    1. Laboratory of Conservation and Utilization of Bio-resources and Key Laboratory for Animal Genetic Diversity and Evolution of High Education in Yunnan Province, School of Life Sciences, Yunnan University, Kunming, China
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  • Andrei D. Poyarkov,

    1. A. N. Severtzov Institute of Ecology and Evolution, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russia
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  • Sang Ngoc Nguyen,

    1. State Key Laboratory of Genetic Resources and Evolution and Yunnan Laboratory of Molecular Biology of Domestic Animals, Kunming Institute of Zoology, The Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming, China
    2. Institute of Tropical Biology, the Vietnamese Academy of Science and Technology, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam
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  • Peng-Tao Luan,

    1. Laboratory of Conservation and Utilization of Bio-resources and Key Laboratory for Animal Genetic Diversity and Evolution of High Education in Yunnan Province, School of Life Sciences, Yunnan University, Kunming, China
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  • Ya-Ping Zhang

    Corresponding author
    1. State Key Laboratory of Genetic Resources and Evolution and Yunnan Laboratory of Molecular Biology of Domestic Animals, Kunming Institute of Zoology, The Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming, China
    2. Laboratory of Conservation and Utilization of Bio-resources and Key Laboratory for Animal Genetic Diversity and Evolution of High Education in Yunnan Province, School of Life Sciences, Yunnan University, Kunming, China
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Ya-Ping Zhang, State Key Laboratory of Genetic Resources and Evolution, Kunming Institute of Zoology, The Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming 650223, China.
E-mail: zhangyp@mail.kiz.ac.cn

Abstract

Aim  We sought to reconstruct the spatio-temporal genetic diversification in goldfish of the Carassius auratus complex, which is widely distributed in Eurasia, to test whether vicariance events or human-mediated translocations best explained lineage divergence and genogeographical history.

Location  East Asia and the Oriental islands including Japan, the Ryukyus and Taiwan, and Europe, including Russia and the Czech Republic.

Methods  We reconstructed the matrilineal history of Eurasian goldfish using 1876 sequences from the partial mitochondrial DNA control region (426 bp) and 191 complete sequences of cytochrome b (1140 bp) from 67 localities representing most of the range of the species. Divergence times were estimated using a Bayesian Markov chain Monte Carlo approach based either on molecular clock data or on the fossil record. Genetic structure and the historical demography of populations were analysed using partial correlation tests and analyses of molecular variance.

Results  Three lineages had high levels of regional specificity. Lineages A and B from the main islands of Japan differed greatly from lineage C, which occurred on the mainland, Taiwan and the Ryukyus. Lineages A and B had late Pliocene origins. Six geographically constrained sublineages within lineage C had near-simultaneous mid-Pleistocene divergences.

Main conclusions  Genetic structure in the C. auratus complex appears to have been driven by palaeoenvironmental perturbations rather than human translocations. The disappearance of a land bridge in the Tsushima Strait around 3.0 Ma is responsible for the separation of Japanese and continental lineages; the estimated divergence time is 2.75–2.32 Ma. Fujian, China and Vietnam appear to have provided important refugia for the C. auratus complex during glaciation. After warm, moist summer monsoons intensified during the mid-Pleistocene, goldfish are likely to have dispersed north-eastwards to recolonize the Ryukyus via Taiwan and northwards to recolonize mainland China.

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