Aims. To examine factors associated with metabolic control, self-management (diet and exercise behaviour), and psychosocial adjustment (diabetes-related distress) in women with type 2 diabetes.
Design. Cross-sectional design using baseline data of women with type 2 diabetes enrolled to participate in a pilot study of a nurse coaching intervention (n = 53).
Ethical issues. Appropriate ethical review and approval was completed. Informed consent from participants was obtained.
Outcome measures. Physiological measures included body mass index and glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c). Self-management measures included the Dietary Subscale of the Summary of Diabetes Self-Care Activities Questionnaire and a modified Paffenbarger Physical Activity Questionnaire. Psychosocial measures included the Problem Areas in Diabetes Survey (diabetes-related distress), the Diabetes Questionnaire, the Diabetes Self-Management Assessment Tool Support and Confidence Subscale, and the Social Functioning Scale. Descriptive, bivariate, and multivariate analyses were completed.
Results. The most consistent predictor of metabolic control, dietary self-management, and diabetes-related distress was support and confidence in living with diabetes. Additionally, women had difficulty meeting optimal goals for exercise, yet reported higher levels of other physical activity.
Limitations. This study was an exploratory analysis with a homogeneous sample of women with type 2 diabetes enrolled in an intervention study and measurements included multiple self-report instruments.
Conclusions. Interventions to increase women's perceived self-confidence and support may contribute to positive health outcomes in women with type 2 diabetes.
Relevance to clinical practice. Assessment of social support and self-confidence in diabetes self-management in women with type 2 diabetes may assist in determining individualized goals and strategies. Enhanced social support and self-confidence in diabetes self-management may subsequently improve metabolic control, self-management and psychosocial adjustment to diabetes.