Development of a Chinese short form of the Prenatal Self-Evaluation Questionnaire

Authors

  • Chun-Ting Lin,

    1. Authors:Chun-Ting Lin, RN, MSN, Graduate Student, Faculty of Nursing, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan; Chung-Ping Cheng, PhD, Assistant Professor, College of Science, Department of Psychology, National Chengchi University, Taipei, Taiwan; Shih-Hsien Kuo, RPh, PhD, Associate Professor, Basic Medical Science Education Center, Fooyin University, Ta-Liao Hsiang, Kaohsiung Hsien, Taiwan; Fan-Hao Chou, RN, PhD, Lambda Beta Chapter-at-Large, Associate Professor, Faculty of Nursing, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan
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  • Chung-Ping Cheng,

    1. Authors:Chun-Ting Lin, RN, MSN, Graduate Student, Faculty of Nursing, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan; Chung-Ping Cheng, PhD, Assistant Professor, College of Science, Department of Psychology, National Chengchi University, Taipei, Taiwan; Shih-Hsien Kuo, RPh, PhD, Associate Professor, Basic Medical Science Education Center, Fooyin University, Ta-Liao Hsiang, Kaohsiung Hsien, Taiwan; Fan-Hao Chou, RN, PhD, Lambda Beta Chapter-at-Large, Associate Professor, Faculty of Nursing, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan
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  • Shih-Hsien Kuo,

    1. Authors:Chun-Ting Lin, RN, MSN, Graduate Student, Faculty of Nursing, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan; Chung-Ping Cheng, PhD, Assistant Professor, College of Science, Department of Psychology, National Chengchi University, Taipei, Taiwan; Shih-Hsien Kuo, RPh, PhD, Associate Professor, Basic Medical Science Education Center, Fooyin University, Ta-Liao Hsiang, Kaohsiung Hsien, Taiwan; Fan-Hao Chou, RN, PhD, Lambda Beta Chapter-at-Large, Associate Professor, Faculty of Nursing, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan
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  • Fan-Hao Chou

    1. Authors:Chun-Ting Lin, RN, MSN, Graduate Student, Faculty of Nursing, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan; Chung-Ping Cheng, PhD, Assistant Professor, College of Science, Department of Psychology, National Chengchi University, Taipei, Taiwan; Shih-Hsien Kuo, RPh, PhD, Associate Professor, Basic Medical Science Education Center, Fooyin University, Ta-Liao Hsiang, Kaohsiung Hsien, Taiwan; Fan-Hao Chou, RN, PhD, Lambda Beta Chapter-at-Large, Associate Professor, Faculty of Nursing, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan
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Fan-Hao Chou, Kaohsiung Medical University, Faculty of Nursing, 100, Shih-chuan 1st Road, Kaohsiung 807, Taiwan. Telephone: 886-7-3121101.
E-mail:fanhao@kmu.edu.tw

Abstract

Aims.  To develop a short-form version of the Chinese Prenatal Self-Evaluation Questionnaire and to examine its reliability and validity.

Background.  Health professionals are short of screening instruments, especially in Chinese, to assess adaptation of pregnant women.

Design.  A cross-sectional research design was used. Pregnant women who visited prenatal clinics in southern Taiwan were recruited for this study. This study was conducted in two phases. The first phase was to develop a Chinese short form of the Prenatal Self-Evaluation Questionnaire, using a convenience sample that consisted of 600 pregnant women. The second phase was to examine the reliability and validity of the short-form Chinese Prenatal Self-Evaluation Questionnaire, and used a convenience sample consisting of 225 pregnant women. Internal consistency and split-half reliability were used to assess reliability. Construct, convergent and discriminate validities were conducted to assess the validity.

Results.  Item, correlation, factor and cluster analyses were used to eliminate 35 items from the questionnaire and to retain 44 items in phase one. The correlation coefficient between the short-form Chinese Prenatal Self-Evaluation Questionnaire and the original Chinese Prenatal Self-Evaluation Questionnaire was 0·95, indicating that the short-form Chinese Prenatal Self-Evaluation Questionnaire was acceptable. In phase two, 35 items were eventually retained and divided into six factors: concern for well-being of self and baby (seven items), acceptance of pregnancy (six items), identification of a motherhood role (three items), preparation for labour (six items), relationship with own mother (eight items) and relationship with husband (five items), accounting for 50·42% of the total variance. The convergent and discriminant validities were good, because the correlation coefficients between subscales and the total scale as well as between subscales and subscales were 0·57–0·71 and 0·18–0·41 (p < 0·01), respectively. The Cronbach's α and split-half reliabilities of the short form were 0·90 and 0·88, respectively.

Conclusions.  A 35-item Chinese short form of the Prenatal Self-Evaluation Questionnaire was developed. The results of this study can be used as a measurement tool for widespread, cost-effective clinical assessment and further research.

Relevance to clinical practice.  Use of the new tool may help nurses to understand the adaptation status of pregnant women and thereby provide suitable nursing care for good adaptation to pregnancy as well as enhanced quality of life.

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