New measures of diabetes self-care agency, diabetes self-efficacy, and diabetes self-management for insulin-treated individuals with type 2 diabetes
Article first published online: 8 APR 2009
© 2009 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2009 Blackwell Publishing Ltd
Journal of Clinical Nursing
Volume 18, Issue 9, pages 1305–1312, May 2009
How to Cite
Sousa, V. D., Hartman, S. W., Miller, E. H. and Carroll, M. A. (2009), New measures of diabetes self-care agency, diabetes self-efficacy, and diabetes self-management for insulin-treated individuals with type 2 diabetes. Journal of Clinical Nursing, 18: 1305–1312. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2702.2008.02729.x
- Issue published online: 8 APR 2009
- Article first published online: 8 APR 2009
- Accepted for publication: 21 August 2008
- scale development;
- type 2 diabetes;
Aims and objectives. To develop and refine three new scales that measure diabetes self-care agency, diabetes self-efficacy and diabetes self-management to reflect the American Diabetes Association current standards of diabetes care and the American Association of Diabetes Educators self-care behaviours. And, to establish the clarity, consistency and content validity of the scales.
Background. There is a need to have valid and reliable instruments or scales to assess an individual’s diabetes self-care agency, self-efficacy and self-management to plan appropriate interventions that can be effective in improving glycaemic control and delaying or preventing diabetes-related complications.
Design. A methodological design was used to conduct this study.
Methods. Ten clinicians and 10 insulin-treated individuals with type 2 diabetes (T2DM) from a diabetes care center in the southern USA participated in this study. Analysis consisted of inter-rater agreement to determine clarity and consistency with standards of diabetes care and content validity of individual items on the scales (I-CVI) and the overall scales (S-CVI/Ave) to determine relevance for current diabetes care practice.
Results. All I-CVI and S-CVI/Ave of the DSES exceeded the minimum acceptable criteria. All I-CVI and the S-CVI of the DSMS also exceeded the minimum accepted criteria, except for one item that had I-CVI = 0·70. Evaluation of the items and the directions of the scales by the sample of insulin-treated individuals with T2DM exceeded the minimum criteria of 80% inter-rater agreement.
Relevance to research and clinical practice. Further psychometric testing of the scales with samples of insulin-treated individuals with diabetes is warranted and will lay the groundwork for further research and clinical practice to enhance the capability, confidence and actual performance of diabetes self-management activities among insulin-treated individuals with T2DM.
Conclusions. The scales can be used by diabetes care providers to assess and follow-up individuals with diabetes who need intense case management. They also can be the measures of choice to conduct future research to test the effects of interventions among insulin-treated individuals with T2DM.