Aims and objectives. This study examined health promotion behaviours of kidney transplant recipients, 1–5 years after transplant and identified the risk factors predicting non-adherence to post-transplant recommendations.
Background. Non-adherence to health care recommendations and health promotion behaviours is one of the top three reasons for graft loss following kidney transplantation.
Design. A cross-sectional study.
Methods. Kidney transplant recipients (n = 101) in southern Taiwan completed a self reported survey, the Kidney Transplant Health Promotion Behavior and Healthcare Provider Support survey.
Results. Kidney transplant patients had better adherence with medication and least adherence with regular exercise health promotion behaviours. Age, post kidney transplant time, health care provider support and financial satisfaction accounted for 37·2% of the explained variance in monitoring and management for rejection and infection. Marital status, post kidney transplant time and gender accounted for 16·2% of the explained variance in infection prevention. Age was the sole predictor of exercise (odds ratio = 1·08, p = 0·025). Health promotion behaviours declined with time and perceived healthcare provider support decreased at the third (p = 0·04) post kidney transplant year.
Conclusion. In this study, young, single, males were identified as requiring specific strategies to improve post kidney transplant health promotion behaviours. The need for health promotion must be continually reinforce by healthcare providers throughout the lifespan of a kidney transplant recipient.
Relevance to clinical practice. Understanding the changes of health behaviours of post kidney transplant recipients and their risk factors, healthcare providers can be more aware of the needs of patients in maintaining health promotion behaviours.