Aim. To investigate risk factors and consequences of nosocomial urinary tract infection in hip fracture patients.
Background. Nosocomial urinary tract infection is a well-known problem in hip fracture patients. There are several risk factors for nosocomial urinary tract infection described in the literature.
Design. Prospective observational study with a descriptive and comparative design.
Methods. Hip fracture patients were included consecutively between April 2006–March 2007. Excluded were those under 50, having an indwelling urinary catheter, signs of cognitive impairment or additional severe physical problems at the time of admission. To verify nosocomial urinary tract infection, a urine specimen was taken at admission and discharge. Patients with and without nosocomial urinary tract infection were compared.
Results. The study included 86 hip fracture patients, of whom 45 (52·3%) contracted nosocomial urinary tract infection in hospital. Earlier reported risk factors for nosocomial urinary tract infection were not confirmed in this study, with one exception: diabetes. All diabetic patients in the study contracted urinary tract infections. Patients receiving cloxacillin as antibiotic prophylaxis for wound infection contracted UTI less often than other patients. There were no statistical differences between groups with regard to urinary tract infection frequency four months after fracture or with regard to mortality after one year.
Conclusion. Diabetes was the only previously known risk factor for nosocomial urinary tract infection confirmed among hip fracture patients in this study. Cloxacillin as antibiotic prophylaxis for surgery seemed to offer a certain protection against nosocomial urinary tract infection.
Relevance to clinical practice. Nurses in clinical practice should be aware of the risk of urinary tract infections in hip fracture patients and especially in hip fracture patients with diabetes. Patients given cloxacillin as antibiotic prophylaxis seem less likely to contract nosocomial urinary tract infection.