• chronic kidney disease;
  • exploratory factor analysis;
  • instrument development;
  • psychometric evaluation;
  • self-management

Aims and objectives.  This study aims to develop a valid and reliable chronic kidney disease self-management instrument (CKD-SM) for assessing early stage chronic kidney disease patients’ self-management behaviours.

Background.  Enhancing early stage chronic kidney disease patients’ self-management plays a key role in delaying the progression of chronic kidney disease. Healthcare provider understanding of early stage chronic kidney disease patients’ self-management behaviours can help develop effective interventions. A valid and reliable instrument for measuring chronic kidney disease patients’ self-management behaviours is needed.

Design.  A cross-sectional descriptive study collected data for principal components analysis with oblique rotation.

Methods.  Mandarin- or Taiwanese-speaking adults with chronic kidney disease (n = 252) from two medical centres and one regional hospital in Southern Taiwan completed the CKD-SM. Construct validity was evaluated by exploratory factor analysis. Internal consistency and test–retest reliability were estimated by Cronbach’s alpha and Pearson correlation coefficients.

Results.  Four factors were extracted and labelled self-integration, problem-solving, seeking social support and adherence to recommended regimen. The four factors accounted for 60·51% of the total variance. Each factor showed acceptable internal reliability with Cronbach’s alpha from 0·77–0·92. The test–retest correlations for the CKD-SM was 0·72.

Conclusion.  The psychometric quality of the CKD-SM instrument was satisfactory. Research to conduct a confirmatory factor analysis to further validate this new instrument’s construct validity is recommended.

Relevance to clinical practice.  The CKD-SM instrument is useful for clinicians who wish to identify the problems with self-management among chronic kidney disease patients early. Self-management assessment will be helpful to develop intervention tailored to the needs of the chronic kidney disease population.