Get access

The locus of pain control in patients with lower limb ulcerations

Authors

  • Justyna Cwajda-Białasik,

    1. Authors:Justyna Cwajda-Białasik, PhD, Assistant, Department of Surgical Nursing, Nicolaus Copernicus University in Torun, Ludwik Rydygier Collegium Medicum in Bydgoszcz, Bydgoszcz; Maria T Szewczyk, PhD, Professor, Head of the Department of Surgical Nursing and Assistant, Department and Clinic of General Surgery, Nicolaus Copernicus University in Torun, Ludwik Rydygier Collegium Medicum in Bydgoszcz, Bydgoszcz; Paulina Mościcka, MSc, Assistant, Department of Surgical Nursing and Department and Clinic of General Surgery, Nicolaus Copernicus University in Torun, Ludwik Rydygier Collegium Medicum in Bydgoszcz, Bydgoszcz; Katarzyna Cierzniakowska, PhD, Assistant, Department of Surgical Nursing and Department and Clinic of General Surgery, Nicolaus Copernicus University in Torun, Ludwik Rydygier Collegium Medicum in Bydgoszcz, Bydgoszcz, Poland
    Search for more papers by this author
  • Maria T Szewczyk,

    1. Authors:Justyna Cwajda-Białasik, PhD, Assistant, Department of Surgical Nursing, Nicolaus Copernicus University in Torun, Ludwik Rydygier Collegium Medicum in Bydgoszcz, Bydgoszcz; Maria T Szewczyk, PhD, Professor, Head of the Department of Surgical Nursing and Assistant, Department and Clinic of General Surgery, Nicolaus Copernicus University in Torun, Ludwik Rydygier Collegium Medicum in Bydgoszcz, Bydgoszcz; Paulina Mościcka, MSc, Assistant, Department of Surgical Nursing and Department and Clinic of General Surgery, Nicolaus Copernicus University in Torun, Ludwik Rydygier Collegium Medicum in Bydgoszcz, Bydgoszcz; Katarzyna Cierzniakowska, PhD, Assistant, Department of Surgical Nursing and Department and Clinic of General Surgery, Nicolaus Copernicus University in Torun, Ludwik Rydygier Collegium Medicum in Bydgoszcz, Bydgoszcz, Poland
    Search for more papers by this author
  • Paulina Mościcka,

    1. Authors:Justyna Cwajda-Białasik, PhD, Assistant, Department of Surgical Nursing, Nicolaus Copernicus University in Torun, Ludwik Rydygier Collegium Medicum in Bydgoszcz, Bydgoszcz; Maria T Szewczyk, PhD, Professor, Head of the Department of Surgical Nursing and Assistant, Department and Clinic of General Surgery, Nicolaus Copernicus University in Torun, Ludwik Rydygier Collegium Medicum in Bydgoszcz, Bydgoszcz; Paulina Mościcka, MSc, Assistant, Department of Surgical Nursing and Department and Clinic of General Surgery, Nicolaus Copernicus University in Torun, Ludwik Rydygier Collegium Medicum in Bydgoszcz, Bydgoszcz; Katarzyna Cierzniakowska, PhD, Assistant, Department of Surgical Nursing and Department and Clinic of General Surgery, Nicolaus Copernicus University in Torun, Ludwik Rydygier Collegium Medicum in Bydgoszcz, Bydgoszcz, Poland
    Search for more papers by this author
  • Katarzyna Cierzniakowska

    1. Authors:Justyna Cwajda-Białasik, PhD, Assistant, Department of Surgical Nursing, Nicolaus Copernicus University in Torun, Ludwik Rydygier Collegium Medicum in Bydgoszcz, Bydgoszcz; Maria T Szewczyk, PhD, Professor, Head of the Department of Surgical Nursing and Assistant, Department and Clinic of General Surgery, Nicolaus Copernicus University in Torun, Ludwik Rydygier Collegium Medicum in Bydgoszcz, Bydgoszcz; Paulina Mościcka, MSc, Assistant, Department of Surgical Nursing and Department and Clinic of General Surgery, Nicolaus Copernicus University in Torun, Ludwik Rydygier Collegium Medicum in Bydgoszcz, Bydgoszcz; Katarzyna Cierzniakowska, PhD, Assistant, Department of Surgical Nursing and Department and Clinic of General Surgery, Nicolaus Copernicus University in Torun, Ludwik Rydygier Collegium Medicum in Bydgoszcz, Bydgoszcz, Poland
    Search for more papers by this author

Justyna Cwajda-Białasik, Assistant, Department of Surgical Nursing, Nicolaus Copernicus University in Toruń, Ludwik Rydygier Collegium Medicum in Bydgoszcz, ul. Techników 3, 85-801 Bydgoszcz, Poland. Telephone: +48 52 585 2193.
E-mail:jcwajda@wp.pl

Abstract

Aims and objectives.  (1) To analyse the distribution of pain control profiles of individuals suffering from the lower limb ulcerations. (2) To identify sociodemographic and clinical factors determine the locus of pain control in this group of patients.

Background.  The locus of pain control can play a critical role in determining the quality of life in patients with lower limb ulcerations, and identification of individuals with an unfavourable pain control profile would enable the opportunity of offering them dedicated psychological counselling.

Design.  Quantitative survey.

Methods.  This study included 298 patients with lower limb ulcerations resulting from chronic venous insufficiency (= 101), lower limb atherosclerosis (= 98), or having mixed arteriovenous aetiology (= 99). The study included the completion of the Polish version of the Beliefs about Pain Control Questionnaire.

Results.  The most important role in the control of pain was assigned to the powerful others locus. This locus correlated directly with poorer educational level and higher professional activity. Additionally, the intensity of usual pain correlated inversely with the powerful others locus. Respondents’ age was the only sociodemographic variable decreasing the level of the internal locus. Moreover, the severity of usual and maximal pain and the area of ulceration correlated inversely with the internal locus of pain control. In contrast, the aetiology of lower limb ulceration did not affect significantly any of the dimensions of pain control.

Conclusion.  The control of pain in ulceration patients is mostly determined by the support of medical personnel, which generally should be considered a negative finding.

Relevance to clinical practice.  Determination of the locus of pain control should be included in the complex medical evaluation of individuals suffering from ulcerations.

Ancillary