Mobile Learning projects – a critical analysis of the state of the art


Christoph Göth, Department of Informatics, University of Zurich, Rämistrasse 71, CH-8006 Zurich, Switzerland. Email:


This paper provides a critical analysis of Mobile Learning projects published before the end of 2007. The review uses a Mobile Learning framework to evaluate and categorize 102 Mobile Learning projects, and to briefly introduce exemplary projects for each category. All projects were analysed with the criteria: context, tools, control, communication, subject and objective. Although a significant number of projects have ventured to incorporate the physical context into the learning experience, few projects include a socializing context. Tool support ranges from pure content delivery to content construction by the learners. Although few projects explicitly discuss the Mobile Learning control issues, one can find all approaches from pure teacher control to learner control. Despite the fact that mobile phones initially started as a communication device, communication and collaboration play a surprisingly small role in Mobile Learning projects. Most Mobile Learning projects support novices, although one might argue that the largest potential is supporting advanced learners. All results show the design space and reveal gaps in Mobile Learning research.