SEARCH

SEARCH BY CITATION

References

  • Bazzaz, F.A. (1998) Plants in Changing Environments: Linking Physiological, Population and Community Ecology. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
  • Bongers, F., Poorter, L. & Hawthorne, W.D. (2004) The forests of Upper Guinea: gradients in large species composition. Biodiversity of West African Forests. An Ecological Atlas of Woody Plant Species (eds L.Poorter, F.Bongers, F.N.Kouamé & W.D.Hawthorne), pp. 4152. CABI Publishing, Wallingford.
  • Bongers, F. & Sterck, F.J. (1998) Architecture and development in rain forest trees: responses to light. Dynamics of Tropical Communities (eds D.M.Newbery, H.H.T.Prins & N.Brown), pp. 125162. Blackwell Scientific Press, Oxford.
  • Clark, D.A. & Clark, D.B. (1992) Life history diversity of canopy and emergent trees in a neotropical rain forest. Ecological Monographs, 62, 315344.
  • Clark, D.B., Clark, D.A. & Rich, P.M. (1993) Comparative analysis of microhabitat utilization by saplings of nine tree species in Neotropical rain forest. Biotropica, 25, 397407.
  • Dalling, J.W., Winter, K., Nason, J.D., Hubbell, S.P., Murawski, D.A. & Hamrick, J.L. (2001) The unusual case of Alseis blackiana: a shade-persistent pioneer tree? Ecology, 82, 933945.
  • Davies, S.J. (2001) Tree mortality and growth in 11 sympatric Macaranga species in Borneo. Ecology, 82, 920932.
  • Davies, S.J., Palmiotto, P.A., Ashton, P.S., Lee, H.S. & LaFrankie, J.V. (1998) Comparative ecology of 11 sympatric species of Macaranga in Borneo: tree distribution in relation to horizontal and vertical resource heterogeneity. Journal of Ecology, 86, 662673.
  • Dawkins, H.C. & Field, D.R.B. (1978) A Long-Term Surveillance System for British Woodland Vegetation. Occassional Papers No. 1. Department of Forestry, Oxford University, Oxford.
  • Finegan, B. (1984) Forest succession. Nature, 312, 109114.
  • Fowler, J., Cohen, L. & Jarvis, P. (1998) Practical Statistics for Field Biology. John Wiley & Sons, Chichester.
  • Givnish, T.J. (1988) Adaptation to sun and shade: a whole-plant perspective. Australian Journal of Plant Physiology, 15, 6392.
  • Grubb, P.J. (1977) The maintenance of species richness in plant communties: the importance of the regeneration niche. Biology Review of the Cambridge Philosophical Society, 52, 107145.
  • Grubb, P.J. (1996) Rainforest dynamics: the need for new paradigms. Tropical Rainforest Research. Current Issues (eds D.S.Edwards, W.E.Booth & S.C.Choy), pp. 215234. Kluwer Academic, Dordrecht.
  • Grubb, P.J. (1998) A reassessment of the strategies of plants which cope with shortages of resources. Perspectives in Plant Ecology Evolution and Systematics, 1, 331.
  • Hawthorne, W.D. (1995) Ecological Profiles of Ghanaian Forest Trees. Tropical Forestry Papers 29. Oxford Forestry Institute, Oxford.
  • Hubbell, S.P. & Foster, R.B. (1986) Canopy gaps and the dynamics of a Neotoropical forest. Plant Ecology (ed. M.J.Crawley), pp. 7796. Blackwell Scientific, Oxford.
  • Hubbell, S.P., Foster, R.B., O'Brien, S.T., Harms, K.E., Condit, R., Wechsler, B. et al. (1999) Light-gap disturbances, recruitment limitation, and tree diversity in a Neotropical forest. Science, 283, 554557.
  • Jans, L., Poorter, L., Bongers, F. & Van Rompaey, R.S.A.R. (1993) Gaps and forest zones in tropical moist forest in Ivory Coast. Biotropica, 25, 258269.
  • Jongkind, C.C.H. (2004) Checklist of Upper Guinea forest species. Biodiversity of West African Forests. An Ecological Atlas of Woody Plant Species (eds L.Poorter, F.Bongers, F.N.Kouamé & W.D.Hawthorne), pp. 447477. CABI Publishing, Wallingford.
  • King, D.A. (1990) Allometry of saplings and understorey trees of a Panamanian forest. Functional Ecology, 4, 2732.
  • Kohyama, T. & Hotta, M. (1990) Significance of allometry in tropical saplings. Functional Ecology, 4, 515521.
  • Kohyama, T., Suzuki, E., Partomihardjo, T., Yamada, T. & Kubo, T. (2003) Tree species differentiation in growth, recruitment and allometry in relation to maximum height in a Bornean mixed dipterocarp forest. Journal of Ecology, 91, 797806.
  • Kyereh, B., Swaine, M.D. & Thompson, J. (1999) Effect of light on the germination of forest trees in Ghana. Journal of Ecology, 87, 772783.
  • Lamprecht, H. (1990) Silviculture in the Tropics. Deutsche Gesellschaft fur Technische Zusammenarbeitung (GTZ), Eschborn, Germany.
  • Li, M., Lieberman, M. & Lieberman, D. (1996) Seedling demography in undisturbed tropical wet forest in Costa Rica. The Ecology of Tropical Forest Tree Seedlings. MAB UNESCO Series, Volume 17 (ed. M.D.Swaine), pp. 285314. Parthenon, Paris.
  • Lieberman, M., Lieberman, D., Peralta, R. & Hartshorn, G.S. (1995) Canopy closure and the distribution of tropical forest tree species at La Selva, Costa Rica. Journal of Tropical Ecology, 3, 347358.
  • Montgomery, R.A. & Chazdon, R.L. (2002) Light gradient partitioning by tropical tree seedlings in the absence of canopy gaps. Oecologia, 131, 165174.
  • Nagelkerke, N.J.D. (1991) A note on the general definition of the coefficient of determination. Biometrika, 78, 691692.
  • Norušis, J.M. (1997) SPSS for Windows: Advanced Statistics, Release 7.0. SPSS Inc., Chicago.
  • Oldeman, R.A.A. & Van Dijk, J. (1991) Diagnosis of the temperament of tropical rain forest trees. Rain Forest Regeneration and Management. Man and the Biosphere Series 6 (eds A.Gómez- Pompa, T.C.Whitmore & M.Hadley), pp. 2165. UNESCO, Paris.
  • Pacala, S.W., Canham, C.D., Saponara, J., Silander, J., Kobe, R.K. & Ribbens, E. (1996) Forest models defined by field measurements: estimation, error analysis and dynamics. Ecological Monographs, 66, 143.
  • Pearson, T.R.H., Burslem, D.F.R.P., Mullins, C.E. & Dalling, J.W. (2002) Germination ecology of neotropical pioneers: interacting effects of environmental conditions and seed size. Ecology, 83, 27982807.
  • Peña-Claros, M. (2001) Secondary Forest Succession. Processes Affecting the Regeneration of Bolivian Tree Species. PROMAB Scientific Series 3. PROMAB, Riberalta, Bolivia.
  • Poker, J. (1993) Struktur und Dynamik des Bestandesmosaiks tropischer Regenwälder. Entwicklung eines Modellansatzes zur Simulation natürlicher Mischbestande. Mitteilungen der Bundesforschungsanstalt für Forst- und Holzwirschaft Hamburg 174, Hamburg.
  • Poorter, L. & Arets, E.J.M.M. (2003) Light environment and tree strategies in a Bolivian tropical moist forest; a test of the light-partitioning hypothesis. Plant Ecology, 166, 295306.
  • Poorter, L., Bongers, F., Sterck, F.J. & Wöll, H. (2003) Architecture of 53 rain forest tree species differing in adult stature and shade tolerance. Ecology, 84, 602608.
  • Poorter, L. & Werger, M.J.A. (1999) Light environment, sapling architecture and leaf display in six rainforest tree species. American Journal of Botany, 86, 14641473.
  • Popma, J., Bongers, F. & Werger, M.J.A. (1992) Gap-dependence and leaf characteristics of trees in a tropical lowland rain forest in Mexico. Oikos, 63, 207214.
  • Reich, P.B. (2000) Do tall trees scale physiological heights? Trends in Ecology and Evolution, 15, 4142.
  • Rose, S.A. (2000) Seeds, Seedlings and Gaps – Size Matters. A Study in the Tropical Rain Forest of Guyana. PhD thesis. Utrecht University, Utrecht, The Netherlands.
  • Sack, L. & Grubb, P.J. (2001) Why do species of woody seedlings change rank in relative growth rate between low and high irradiance? Functional Ecology, 15, 145154.
  • Siepel, A., Poorter, L. & Hawthorne, W.D. (2004) Ecological profiles of large timber species. Biodiversity of West African Forests. An Ecological Atlas of Woody Plant Species (eds L.Poorter, F.Bongers, F.N.Kouamé & W.D.Hawthorne), pp. 391445. CABI Publishing, Wallingford.
  • Sterck, F.J. & Bongers, F. (1998) Ontogenetic changes in size, allometry, and mechanical design of tropical rainforest trees. American Journal of Botany, 85, 266272.
  • Sterck, F.J., Bongers, F. & Newbery, D. (2001) Tree architecture in a Bornean lowland rain forest: intra- and interspecific patterns. Plant Ecology, 153, 279292.
  • Sterck, F.J., Clark, D.B., Clark, D.A. & Bongers, F. (1999) Light fluctuations, crown traits, and response delays for tree saplings in a Costa Rican lowland rain forest. Journal of Tropical Ecology, 15, 8395.
  • Swaine, M.D. & Whitmore, T.C. (1988) On the definition of ecological species groups in tropical forests. Vegetatio, 75, 8186.
  • Thomas, S.C. (1996a) Relative size at onset of maturity in rain forest trees: a comparative analysis of 37 Malaysian species. Oikos, 76, 145154.
  • Thomas, S.C. (1996b) Asymptotic height as a predictor of growth and allometric characteristics in Malaysian rain forest trees. American Journal of Botany, 83, 556566.
  • Thomas, S.C. & Bazzaz, F.A. (1999) Asymptotic height as a predictor of photosynthetic characteristics in Malaysian rain forest trees. Ecology, 80, 16071622.
  • Turner, I.M. (2001) The Ecology of Trees in the Tropical Rain Forest. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
  • Welden, C.W., Hewett, S.W., Hubbell, S.P. & Foster, R.B. (1991) Sapling survival, growth and recruitment: relationship to canopy height in a neotropical forest. Ecology, 72, 3550.
  • Westoby, M., Falster, D.S., Moles, T.A., Vesk, P.A. & Wright, I.J. (2002) Plant ecological strategies: some leading dimensions of variation between species. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics, 33, 125159.
  • Zagt, R.J. & Werger, M.J.A. (1998) Community structure and demography of primary species in tropical rain forest. Dynamics of Tropical Communities (eds D.M.Newbery, H.H.T.Prins & N.Brown), pp. 193220. Blackwell Scientific, Oxford.
  • Zuidema, P.A. & Boot, R.G.A. (2002) Demography of the Brazil nut tree (Bertholletia excelsa) in the Bolivian Amazon: impact of seed extraction on recruitment and population dynamcis. Journal of Tropical Ecology, 18, 131.