SEARCH

SEARCH BY CITATION

References

  • Aguiar, M.R. & Sala, O.E. (1994) Competition, facilitation, seed distribution and the origin of patches in a Patagonian steppe. Oikos, 70, 2634.
  • Aguiar, M.R. & Sala, O.E. (1997) Seed distribution constrains the dynamics of the Patagonian steppe. Ecology, 78, 93100.
  • Aguiar, M.R., Soriano, A. & Sala, O.E. (1992) Competition and facilitation in the recruitment of seedlings in Patagonian steppe. Functional Ecology, 6, 6670.
  • Beltrán, A. (1997) Caracterización microclimática del Distrito Occidental de la estepa Patagónica. Magister thesis. Universidad de Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires.
  • Bertiller, M.B. (1992) Seasonal variation in the seed bank of a Patagonian grassland in relation to grazing and topography. Journal of Vegetation Science, 3, 4754.
  • Bertiller, M.B. & Coronato, F. (1994) Seed bank patterns in semiarid Patagonia (Argentina): a possible limit to bunch reestablishment. Biodiversity and Conservation, 3, 5767.
  • Brown, J.H., Reichman, O.J. & Davidson, D.W. (1979) Granivory in desert ecosystems. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics, 10, 201227.
  • Carson, W.P. & Peterson, C.J. (1990) The role of litter in an old-field community: impact of litter quantity in different seasons on plant species richness and abundance. Oecologia, 85, 813.
  • Casal, J.J. & Sánchez, R.A. (1998) Phytochromes and seed germination. Seed Science Research, 8, 317329.
  • Chambers, J.C. (2000) Seed movements and seedling fates in disturbed sagebrush steppe ecosystems: implications for restoration. Ecological Applications, 10, 14001413.
  • Chambers, J.C. & MacMahon, J.A. (1994) A day in the life of a seed: movements and fates of seeds and their implications for natural and managed systems. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics, 25, 263292.
  • Clark, D.L. & Wilson, M.V. (2003) Post-dispersal seed fates of four prairie species. American Journal of Botany, 90, 730735.
  • Correa, M.N. (197184) Flora Patagónica. Colección Científica. INTA, Buenos Aires.
  • De Jong, T. & Klinkhamer, P.G.L. (1985) The negative effects of litter on parent plants of Cirsium vulgare on their offspring: autotoxicity or immobilization? Oecologia, 6, 153160.
  • Efron, B. & Tibshirani, R. (1993) An Introduction to the Bootstrap. Chapman & Hall, London.
  • Eriksson, O. & Ehrlén, J. (1992) Seed and microsite limitation of recruitment in plant populations. Oecologia, 91, 360364.
  • Evans, R.A. & Young, J.A. (1970) Plant litter and establishment of alien weed species in rangeland communities. Weed Science, 19, 697702.
  • Facelli, J.M. & Pickett, S.T.A. (1991) Plant litter: its dynamics and effects on plant community structure. Botanical Review, 57, 231.
  • Folgarait, P.J., Monjeau, A. & Kittlein, M. (1998) Solving the enigma of granivory rates in Patagonia and throughout other deserts of the world: is thermal range the explanation? Ecología Austral, 8, 251261.
  • Folgarait, P.J. & Sala, O.E. (2002) Granivory rates by rodents, insects, and birds at different microsites in the Patagonian steppe. Ecography, 25, 417427.
  • Foster, B.L. (1999) Establishment, competition and the distribution of native grasses among Michigan old-fields. Journal of Ecology, 87, 476489.
  • Fowler, N.L. (1986) Microsite requirements for germination and establishment of three grass species. American Midland Naturalist, 115, 131145.
  • Fowler, N.L. (1988) What is a safe site? Neighbor, litter, germination date, and patch effects. Ecology, 69, 947961.
  • Ghermandi, L. (1995) The effect of the awn on the burial and germination of Stipa speciosa (Poaceae). Acta Oecologica, 16, 719728.
  • Golluscio, R.A., León, R.J.C. & Perelman, S. (1982) Caracterización fitosociológica de la estepa del oeste del Chubut; su relación con el gradiente ambiental. Boletín de la Sociedad Argentina de Botánica, 21, 299324.
  • Golluscio, R.A., Sala, O.E. & Lauenroth, W.K. (1998) Differential use of large summer rainfall events by shrubs and grasses: a manipulative experiment in the Patagonian steppe. Oecologia, 115, 1725.
  • Harper, J.L. (1977) The Population Biology of Plants. Academic Press, New York.
  • Harper, J.L. (1987) The heuristic value of ecological restoration. Restoration Ecology. A Synthetic Approach to Ecological Research (eds W.Jordan, M.Gilpin & J.Aber), pp. 3545. Cambridge University Press, New York.
  • Leishman, M.R., Masters, G.J., Clarke, I.P. & Brown, V.K. (2000) Seed bank dynamics: the role of fungal pathogens and climate change. Functional Ecology, 14, 293299.
  • León, R.J.C., Bran, D., Collantes, M., Paruelo, J.M. & Soriano, A. (1998) Grandes unidades de vegetación de la Patagonia extra andina. Ecología Austral, 8, 125144.
  • Meentemeyer, V. (1978) Macroclimate and lignin control of litter decomposition rates. Ecology, 59, 465472.
  • Milchunas, D.G., Lauenroth, W.K. & Chapman, P.L. (1992) Plant competition, abiotic, and long- and short-term effects of large herbivores on demography of opportunistic species in a semiarid grassland. Oecologia, 92, 520531.
  • Naeth, M.A., Bailey, A.W., Pluth, D.J., Chanasyk, D.S. & Hardin, R.T. (1991) Grazing impact on litter and soil organic matter in mixed praire and fescue grassland ecosystems of Alberta. Journal of Range Management, 44, 712.
  • Paruelo, J.M., Aguiar, M.R. & Golluscio, R.A. (1988) Soil water availability in the Patagonian arid steppe: gravel content effect. Arid Soil Research and Rehabilitation, 2, 6774.
  • Roberts, E.H. & Ellis, R.H. (1989) Water and seed survival. Annals of Botany, 63, 3952.
  • Rotundo, J.L. & Aguiar, M.R. (2004) Vertical seed distribution constrains regeneration of B. pictus in a Patagonian steppe. Journal of Vegetation Science, 15, 515522.
  • SAS Institute (1985) SAS User's Guide, Version 5. SAS Institute, Cary, North Carolina.
  • SAS Institute (1990) SAS/IML Software: Usage and Reference, Version 6. SAS Institute, Cary, North Carolina.
  • Schemske, D., Husband, B., Ruckelshaus, M., Goodwille, C., Parker, I. & Bishop, J. (1994) Evaluating approaches to the conservation of rare and endangered plants. Ecology, 75, 584606.
  • Schlatterer, E.F. & Tisdale, E.W. (1969) Effects of litter of Artemisia, Chrysothamnus, and Tortula on germination and growth of three perennial grasses. Ecology, 50, 869873.
  • Soriano, A., Sala, O.E. & León, R.J.C. (1980) Vegetación actual y vegetación potencial en el pastizal de coirón amargo (Stipa ssp.) del SW de Chubut. Boletín de la Sociedad Argentina de Botánica, 19, 309314.
  • Stevens, M.H.M., Bunker, D.E., Schnitzer, S.A. & Carson, W.P. (2004) Establishment limitation reduces species recruitment and species richness as soil resources rise. Journal of Ecology, 92, 339347.
  • Suding, K. & Goldberg, D. (1999) Variation in the effects of vegetation and litter on recruitment across productivity gradients. Journal of Ecology, 87, 436449.
  • Sydes, C. & Grime, J.P. (1981) Effects of tree litter on herbaceous vegetation in deciduous woodland. II. An experimental investigation. Journal of Ecology, 69, 249262.
  • Turnbull, L.A., Crawley, M.J. & Rees, M. (2000) Are populations seed limited? A review of seed sowing experiments. Oikos, 88, 225238.
  • Walters, C. (1998) Understanding the mechanisms and kinetics of seed aging. Seed Science Research, 8, 223244.
  • Winkworth, R.E., Perry, R.A. & Rosetti, C.O. (1962) A comparison of methods of estimating plant cover in an arid grassland community. Journal of Range Management, 15, 194196.
  • Xiong, S. & Nilsson, C. (1997) Dynamics of leaf litter accumulation and its effects on riparian vegetation: a review. Botanical Review, 63, 240261.
  • Xiong, S., Johansson, M.E., Hughes, F.M.R., Hayes, A., Richards, K.S. & Nilsson, C. (2003) Interactive effects of soil moisture, vegetation canopy, plant litter and seed addition on plant diversity in a wetland community. Journal of Ecology, 91, 976986.
  • Xiong, S. & Nilsson, C. (1999) The effects of plant litter on vegetation: a meta-analysis. Journal of Ecology, 87, 984994.