SEARCH

SEARCH BY CITATION

References

  • Ashton, P.S. (1969) Speciation among tropical forest trees: some deductions in the light of recent evidence. Speciation in Tropical Environments (ed. R.H.Lowe-McConnell), pp. 155196. Academic Press, London.
  • Borcard, D., Legendre, P. & Drapeau, P. (1992) Partialling out the spatial component of ecological variation. Ecology, 73, 10451055.
  • Brown, N., Jennings, S., Wheeler, P. & Nabe-Nielsen, J. (2000) An improved method for the rapid assessment of forest understorey light environments. Journal of Applied Ecology, 37, 10441053.
  • Casgrain, P. & Legendre, P. (2001) The R Package for Multivariate and Spatial Analysis, Version 4.0. Département de Sciences Biologiques, Université de Montréal, Montréal, Canada.
  • Clark, D.B., Clark, D.A. & Read, J.M. (1998) Edaphic variation and the mesoscale distribution of tree species in a neotropical rain forest. Journal of Ecology, 86, 101112.
  • Clark, D.A., Clark, D.B., Sandoval, M.R. & Castro, C.M.V. (1995) Edaphic and human effects on landscape-scale distributions of tropical rain forest palms. Ecology, 76, 25812594.
  • Clark, D.B., Palmer, M.W. & Clark, D.A. (1999) Edaphic factors and the landscape-scale distributions of tropical rain forest trees. Ecology, 80, 26622675.
  • Clark, D.B., Soto Castro, C., Alfaro Alvarado, L.D. & Read, J. (2004) Quantifying mortality of tropical rain forest trees using high-spatial-resolution satellite data. Ecology Letters, 7, 5259.
  • Con Dit, R. (1996) Defining and mapping vegetation types in mega-diverse tropical forests. Trends in Ecology and Evolution, 11, 45.
  • Con Dit, R., Pitman, N., Leigh, E.G., Chave, J., Terborgh, J., Foster, R. et al. (2002) Beta-diversity in tropical forest trees. Science, 295, 666669.
  • Denslow, J.S. (1987) Tropical rain forest gaps and tree species diversity. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics, 18, 431451.
  • Duivenvoorden, J.F. (1995) Tree species composition and rain forest-environment relationships in the middle Caquetá area, Colombia, NW Amazonia. Vegetatio, 120, 91113.
  • Duivenvoorden, J.F., Svenning, J.-C. & Wright, S.J. (2002) Beta diversity in tropical forests. Science, 295, 636637.
  • Duque, A., Sánchez, M., Cavallier, J. & Duivenvoorden, J.E. (2002) Different floristic patterns in woody understorey and canopy plants in Colombian Amazonia. Journal of Tropical Ecology, 18, 499525.
  • Fedorov, A.A. (1966) The structure of the tropical rain forest and speciation in the humid tropics. Journal of Ecology, 54, 111.
  • Gentry, A.H. (1988) Changes in plant community diversity and floristic composition on environmental and geographical gradients. Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden, 75, 134.
  • Gilbert, B. & Lechowicz, M.J. (2004) Neutrality, niches, and dispersal in a temperate forest understory. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 101, 76517656.
  • Harms, K.E., Con Dit, R., Hubbell, S.P. & Foster, R.B. (2001) Habitat associations of trees and shrubs in a 50-ha neotropical forest plot. Journal of Ecology, 89, 947959.
  • Hartshorn, G.S. & Hammel, B.E. (1994) Vegetation types and floristic patterns. La Selva: Ecology and Natural History of a Neotropical Rain Forest (eds L.A.Mc Dade, K.S.Bawa, H.A.Hespenheide & G.S.Hartshorn), pp. 118157. University of Chicago Press, Chicago.
  • Hofton, M.A., Rocchio, L.E., Blair, J.B. & Dubayah, R. (2002) Validation of vegetation canopy lidar sub-canopy topography measurements for a dense tropical forest. Journal of Geodynamics, 34, 491502.
  • Hubbell, S.P. (2001) The Unified Theory of Biodiversity and Biogeography. Monographs in Population Biology 32. Princeton University Press, Princeton.
  • Hubbell, S.P. & Foster, R.B. (1986) Biology, chance, and history and the structure of tropical rain forest tree communitites. Community Ecology (eds J.Diamond & T.J. Case), pp. 314329. Harper & Row, New York.
  • König, N. & Fortmann, H. (1996a) Probenvorbereitungs-, Untersuchungs- und Elementbestimmungs-Methoden des Umweltanalytik-Labors der Niedersächsischen Forstlichen Versuchsansalt und des Zentrallabors II des Forschungszentrums Waldökosysteme. Teil 1: Elementbestimmungsmethoden A-M. Berichte des Forschungszentrums Waldökosysteme, Reihe B, Bd. 46.
  • König, N. & Fortmann, H. (1996b) Probenvorbereitungs-, Untersuchungs- und Elementbestimmungs-Methoden des Umweltanalytik-Labors der Niedersächsischen Forstlichen Versuchsansalt und des Zentrallabors II des Forschungszentrums Waldökosysteme. Teil 2: Elementbestimmungsmethoden N-Z und Sammelanhänge. Berichte des Forschungszentrums Waldökosysteme, Reihe B, Bd. 47.
  • Legendre, P. (1993) Spatial autocorrelation: trouble or new paradigm? Ecology, 74, 16591673.
  • Legendre, P. (2000) Comparison of permutation methods for the partial correlation and partial Mantel tests. Journal of Statistical Computation and Simulation, 67, 3773.
  • Legendre, P., Dallot, S. & Legendre, L. (1985) Succession of species within a community: chronological clustering, with applications to marine and freshwater zooplankton. American Naturalist, 125, 257288.
  • Legendre, P., Lapointe, F.-J. & Casgrain, P. (1994) Modeling brain evolution from behavior: a permutational regression approach. Evolution, 48, 14871499.
  • Legendre, P. & Legendre, L. (1998) Numerical Ecology, 2nd edn. Elsevier, Amsterdam.
  • Lieberman, M., Lieberman, D., Hartshorn, G.S. & Peralta, R. (1985) Small-scale altitudinal variation in lowland wet tropical forest vegetation. Journal of Ecology , 73, 505516.
  • Lieberman, M., Lieberman, D., Peralta, R. & Hartshorn, G.S. (1995) Canopy closure and the distribution of tropical forest tree species at La Selva, Costa Rica. Journal of Tropical Ecology, 11, 161177.
  • Pélissier, R., Dray, S. & Sabatier, D. (2001) Within-plot relationships between tree species occurrences and hydrological soil constraints: an example in French Guiana investigated through canonical correlation analysis. Plant Ecology, 162, 143156.
  • Phillips, O.L., Núñez Vargas, P., Lorenzo Monteagudo, A., Peña Cruz, A., Chuspe Zans, M.-E., Galiano Sánchez, W. et al. (2003) Habitat association among Amazonian tree species: a landscape-scale approach. Journal of Ecology, 91, 757775.
  • Pitman, N.C.A., Terborgh, J., Silman, M.R., Nuñez, V. , P. (1999) Tree species distributions in an upper Amazonian forest. Ecology, 80, 26512661.
  • Pitman, N.C.A., Terborgh, J., Silman, M.R., Nuñez, V.P., Neill, D.A., Cerón, C.E. et al. (2001) Dominance and distribution of tree species in upper Amazonian terra firme forests. Ecology, 82, 21012117.
  • Potts, M.D., Ashton, P.S., Kaufman, L.S. & Plotkin, J.B. (2002) Habitat patterns in tropical rain forests: a comparison of 105 plots in northwest Borneo. Ecology, 83, 27822797.
  • Potts, M.D., Davies, S.J., Bossert, W.H., Tan, S. & Nur Supardi, M.N. (2004) Habitat heterogeneity and niche structure of trees in two tropical rain forests. Oecologia, 139, 446453.
  • Prance, G.T. (1989) American tropical forests. Ecosystems of the World 14B. Tropical Rain Forest Ecosystems: Biogeographical and Ecological Studies (eds H.Lieth & M.J.A.Werger), pp. 99132. Elsevier, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
  • Ruokolainen, K., Linna, A. & Tuomisto, H. (1997) Use of Melastomataceae and pteridophytes for revealing phytogeographical patterns in Amazonian rain forests. Journal of Tropical Ecology, 13, 243256.
  • Ruokolainen, K. & Tuomisto, H. (2002) Beta-diversity in tropical forests. Science, 297, 1439a.
  • Sanford, R.L., Braker, H.E. & Hartshorn, G.S. (1986) Canopy openings in a primary Neotropical lowland forest. Journal of Tropical Ecology, 2, 277282.
  • Sanford, R.L., Paaby, P., Luvall, J.C. & Phillips, E. (1994) Climate, geomorphology, and aquatic systems. La Selva: Ecology and Natural History of a Neotropical Rain Forest (eds L.A.McDade, K.S.Bawa, H.A.Hespenheide & G.S.Hartshorn), pp. 1933. University of Chicago Press, Chicago.
  • Sollins, P., Sancho, M.F., Mata, Ch.R. & Sanford, R.L. (1994) Soils and soil process research. La Selva: Ecology and Natural History of a Neotropical Rain Forest (eds L.A.McDade, K.S.Bawa, H.A.Hespenheide & G.S.Hartshorn), pp. 3453. University of Chicago Press, Chicago.
  • Ter Steege, H., Jetten, V.G., Polak, A.M. & Werger, M.J.A. (1993) Tropical rain forest types and soil factors in a watershed area in Guyana. Journal of Vegetation Science, 4, 705716.
  • Svenning, J.-C. (1999) Microhabitat specialization in a species-rich palm community in Amazonian Ecuador. Journal of Ecology, 87, 5565.
  • Svenning, J.-C., Kinner, D.A., Stallard, R.F., Engelbrecht, B.M.J. & Wright, S.J. (2004) Ecological determinism in plant community structure across a tropical forest landscape. Ecology, 85, 25262538.
  • Svenning, J.-C. & Skov, F. (2002) Mesoscale distribution of understorey plants in temperate forest (Kalø, Denmark): the importance of environment and dispersal. Plant Ecology, 160, 169185.
  • Terborgh, J., Foster, R.B. & Nuñez, V.P. (1996) Tropical tree communities: a test of the nonequilibrium hypothesis. Ecology, 77, 561567.
  • Tuomisto, H. & Poulsen, A. (2000) Pteridophyte diversity and species composition in four Amazonian rain forests. Journal of Vegetation Science, 11, 383396.
  • Tuomisto, H., Poulsen, A.D., Ruokolainen, K., Moran, R.C., Quintana, C. & Cañas, G. (2003) Linking floristic patterns with soil heterogeneity and satellite imagery in Ecuadorian Amazonia. Ecological Applications, 13, 352371.
  • Tuomisto, H. & Ruokolainen, K. (1994) Distribution of Pteridophyta and Melastomataceae along an edaphic gradient in an Amazonian rain forest. Journal of Vegetation Science, 5, 2534.
  • Tuomisto, H., Ruokolainen, K., Aguilar, M. & Sarmiento, A. (2003) Floristic patterns along a 43-km long transect in an Amazonian rain forest. Journal of Ecology, 91, 743756.
  • Tuomisto, H., Ruokolainen, K., Kalliola, R., Linna, A., Danjoy, W. & Rodriguez, Z. (1995) Dissecting Amazonian biodiversity. Science, 269, 6366.
  • Tuomisto, H., Ruokolainen, K. & Yli-Halla, M. (2003) Dispersal, environment, and floristic variation of Western Amazonian forests. Science, 299, 241244.
  • Valencia, R., Foster, R.B., Villa, G., Con Dit, R., Svenning, J.-C., Hernández, C. et al. (2004) Tree species distributions and local habitat variation in the Amazon: large forest plot in eastern Ecuador. Journal of Ecology, 92, 214229.
  • Vormisto, J., Phillips, O.L., Ruokolainen, K., Tuomisto, H. & Vásquez, R. (2000) A comparison of fine-scale distribution patterns of four plant groups in an Amazonian rainforest. Ecography, 23, 349359.
  • Vormisto, J., Svenning, J.-C., Hall, P. & Balslev, B. (2004) Diversity and dominance in palm (Arecaceae) communities in terra firme forests in the western Amazon basin. Journal of Ecology, 92, 577588.
  • Vormisto, J., Tuomisto, H. & Oksanen, J. (2004) Palm distribution patterns in Amazonian rainforests: what is the role of topographic variation? Journal of Vegetation Science, 15, 485494.
  • Webb, C.O. & Peart, D.R. (2000) Habitat associations of trees and seedlings in a Bornean rain forest. Journal of Ecology, 88, 464478.
  • Wolf, P.G., Schneider, H. & Ranker, T. (2001) Geographic distributions of homosporous ferns: does dispersal obscure evidence of vicariance? Journal of Biogeography, 28, 263270.