SEARCH

SEARCH BY CITATION

References

  • Bigler, C. & Bugmann, H. (2003) Growth-dependent tree mortality models based on tree rings. Canadian Journal of Forest Research, 33, 210221.
  • Birks, H.H. (2001) Plant macrofossils. Tracking Environmental Change Using Lake Sediments (ed. W.M.Last), pp. 4974. Kluwer, Dordrecht.
  • Birks, H.H., Vorren, K.-D. & Birks, H.J.B. (1996) Holocene treelines, dendrochronology and palaeoclimate. Holocene Treeline Oscillations, Dendrochronolgy and Palaeoclimate (ed. B. Frenzel), pp. 118. Gustav Fischer Verlag, Stuttgart.
  • Botkin, D.B., Janak, J.F. & Wallis, J.R. (1972) Some ecological consequences of a computer model of forest growth. Journal of Ecology, 60, 849872.
  • Bugmann, H. (1994) On the ecology of mountainous forests in a changing climate: a simulation study. PhD Thesis. ETH, Zurich, Switzerland.
  • Bugmann, H. (1996) A simplified forest model to study species composition along climate gradients. Ecology, 77, 20552074.
  • Bugmann, H. (1997) An efficient method for estimating the steady-state species composition of forest gap models. Canadian Journal of Forest Research, 27, 551556.
  • Bugmann, H. (2001) A comparative analysis of forest dynamics in the Swiss Alps and the Colorado Front Range. Forest Ecology and Management, 145, 4355.
  • Bugmann, H. & Cramer, W. (1998) Improving the behaviour of forest gap models along drought gradients. Forest Ecology and Management, 103, 247263.
  • Bugmann, H., Fischlin, A. & Kienast, F. (1996) Model convergence and state variable update in forest gap models. Ecological Modelling, 89, 197208.
  • Bugmann, H. & Pfister, C. (2000) Impacts of interannual climate variability on past and future forest composition. Regional Environmental Change, 1, 112125.
  • Bugmann, H.K.M. & Solomon, A.M. (1995) The use of a European forest model in North America: a study of ecosystem response to climate gradients. Journal of Biogeography, 22, 477484.
  • Bugmann, H. & Solomon, A.M. (2000) Explaining forest composition and biomass across multiple biogeographical regions. Ecological Applications, 10, 95114.
  • Burga, C.A. & Perret, R. (1998) Vegetation und Klima der Schweiz Seit Dem Jüngeren Eiszeitalter. Ott Verlag, Thun.
  • Carcaillet, C., Talon, B. & Barbero, M. (1998) Pinus cembra et incendies pendant l’Holocène, 300 m au-dessus de la limite actuelle des arbres dans le massif de la Vanoise (Alpes du nord-ouest). Ecologie, 29, 277282.
  • Carnelli, A.L., Theurillat, J.P., Thinon, M., Vada, G. & Talon, B. (2004) Past upper most tree limit in the Central European Alps (Switzerland) based on soil and soil charcoal. Holocene, 14 (3), 393405.
  • Frei, E., Voegt, U., Flueckiger, R., Brunner, H., Schai, F. & Haeberli, R. (1980) Bodeneignungskarte der Schweiz. Eidg. Drucksachen- und Materialzentrale, Bern.
  • von Grafenstein, U., Eicher, U., Erlenkeuser, H., Ruch, P., Schwander, J. & Ammann, B. (2000) Isotope signature of the Younger Dryas and two minor oscillations at Gerzensee (Switzerland): palaeoclimatic and palaeolimnologic interpretation based on bulk and biogenic carbonates. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecolgy, 159, 215229.
  • Guiot, J., Harrison, S.P. & Prentice, I.C. (1993) Reconstruction of holocene precipitation patterns in Europe using pollen and lake-level data. Quaternary Research, 40, 139149.
  • Haas, J.N., Rischoz, I., Tinner, W. & Wick, L. (1998) Synchronous Holocene climatic oscillations recorded on the Swiss Plateau and at timberline in the Alps. Holocene, 8, 301309.
  • Hättenschwiler, S. & Körner, C. (1995) Responses to recent climate warming of Pinus sylvestris and Pinus cembra within their montane transition zone in the Swiss Alps. Journal of Vegetation Science, 6, 357368.
  • Heiri, O. (2001) Holocene palaeolimnology of Swiss mountain lakes reconstructed using subfossil chironomid remains: past climate and prehistoric human impact on lake ecosystems. PhD Thesis. University of Bern, Bern.
  • Heiri, O., Lotter, A.F., Hausmann, S. & Kienast, F. (2003a) A chironomid-based Holocene summer air temperature reconstruction from the Swiss Alps. Holocene, 13, 477484.
  • Heiri, O., Tinner, W. & Lotter, A.F. (2004) Evidence for cooler European summers during periods of changing melt-water flux to the North Atlantic. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA (PNAS), 101, 1528515288.
  • Heiri, O., Wick, L., van Leeuwen, J.F.N., van Der Knaap, W.O. & Lotter, A.F. (2003b) Holocene tree immigration and the chironomid fauna of a small Swiss subalpine lake (Hinterburgsee, 1515 m asl). Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 189, 3553.
  • Innes, J.L. (1998) The impact of climatic extremes on forests: an introduction. The Impacts of Climate Variability on Forests (ed. J.L.Innes), pp. 114. Springer Verlag, Berlin.
  • Jalut, G., Galop, D., Aubert, S. & Belet, J.M. (1996) Late-glacial and postglacial fluctuations of the tree limits in the Mediterranean Pyrenees: the use of pollen ratios. Holocene TreeLine Oscillations, Dendrochronolgy and Palaeoclimate (ed. B.Frenzel), pp. 189201. Gustav Fischer Verlag, Stuttgart.
  • Keller, F., Lischke, H., Mathis, T., Möhl, A., Wick, L., Ammann, B. et al. (2002) Effects of climate, fire, and humans on forest dynamics: forest simulations compared to the palaeological record. Ecological Modelling, 152, 109127.
  • Kienast, F. (1987) FORECE – A Forest Succession Model for Southern Central Europe. Report ORNL/TM-10575. Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee.
  • Körner, C. (1998) A re-assessment of high elevation treeline positions and their explanation. Oecologia, 115, 445459.
  • Körner, C. & Paulsen, J. (2004) A world-wide study of high altitude treeline temperatures. Journal of Biogeography, 31, 713732.
  • Lang, G. (1994) Quartäre Vegetationsgeschichte Europas. Methoden und Ergebnisse. Gustav Fischer Verlag, Jena.
  • Lischke, H. (2001) New developments in forest modeling: convergence between applied and theoretical approaches. Natural Resources Model, 14, 71102.
  • Lischke, H. (2005) Modelling of tree species migration in the Alps during the Holocene: what creates complexity? Ecological Complexity, 2, 159174.
  • Lischke, H., Guisan, A., Fischlin, A., Williams, J. & Bugmann, H. (1998) Vegetation responses to climate change in the Alps – modeling studies. A View from the Alps: Regional Perspectives on Climate Change (ed. C.C.Jaeger), pp. 309350. MIT Press, Boston.
  • Lischke, H., Lotter, A.F. & Fischlin, A. (2002) Untangling a Holocene pollen record with forest model simulations and independent climate data. Ecological Modelling, 150, 121.
  • Löffler, T.J. & Lischke, H. (2001) Incorporation and influence of variability in an aggregated forest model. Natural Resource Modeling, 14, 103137.
  • Lotter, A. & Kienast, F. (1992) Validation of a forest succession model by means of annually laminated sediments. Proceedings of the INQUA Workshop on Laminated Sediments, June 4–6, 1990, Lammi, Finland. Geological Survey of Finland Special Paper Series (eds M.Saarnisto & A.Kahra), pp. 2531. Geologian Tutkimuskeskus, Espoo.
  • Magny, M., Begeot, C., Guiot, J. & Peyron, O. (2003) Contrasting patterns of hydrological changes in Europe in response to Holocene climate cooling phases. Quaternary Science Reviewss, 22 (15–17), 15891596.
  • Moore, A.D. (1989) On the maximum growth equation used in forest gap simulation models. Ecological Modelling, 45, 6367.
  • Ott, E., Frehner, M., Frey, H.-U. & Lüscher, P. (1997) Gebirgsnadelwälder: praxisorientierter Leitfaden für eine standortgerechte Waldbehandlung. Paul Haupt Verlag, Bern.
  • Patzelt, G. & Penz, H. (1975) Unterinntal – Zillertal – Pinzgau – Kitzbühel. Spät- und postglaziale Landschaftsentwicklung, Exkursionsführer Tirol. Innsbrucker Geographyraphische Studien, 2, 309329.
  • Pennington, W. (1986) Lags in adjustment of vegetation to climate caused by the pace of soil development: evidence from Britain. Vegetatio, 67, 105118.
  • Prentice, I.C. (1986) Vegetation responses to past climatic variation. Vegetatio, 67, 131141.
  • Reynolds, J.F., Bugmann, H. & Pitelka, L.F. (2001) How much physiology is needed in forest gap models for simulating long-term vegetation response to global change? Challenges, limitations, and potentials. Climatic Change, 51, 541557.
  • Risch, A.C., Heiri, C. & Bugmann, H. (2005) Simulating structural forest patterns with a forest gap model: a model evaluation. Ecological Modelling, 181, 161172.
  • Schmidt, R., Koinig, K.A., Thompson, R. & Kamenik, C. (2002) A multi proxy core study of the last 7000 years of climate and alpine land-use impacts on an Austrian mountain lake (Unterer Landschitzsee, Niedere Tauern). Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 187 (1–2), 101120.
  • Schwander, J., Eicher, U. & Ammann, B. (2000) Oxygen isotopes of lake marl at Gerzensee and Leysin (Switzerland), covering the Younger Dryas and two minor oscillations, and their correlation to the GRIP ice core. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 159, 203214.
  • Seppä, H. & Birks, H.J.B. (2001) July mean temperature and annual precipitation trends during the Holocene in the Fennoscandian tree-line area: pollen-based climate reconstruction. Holocene, 11, 527539.
  • Shao, G., Bugmann, H. & Yan, X. (2001) A comparative analysis of the structure and behavior of three gap models at sites in Northeastern China. Climatic Change, 51, 389413.
  • Shugart, H.H. (1984) A Theory of Forest Dynamics. The Ecological Implications of Forest Succession Models. Springer, Berlin.
  • Shugart, H.H. (1989) The role of ecological models in long-term ecological studies. Long-Term Studies in Ecology (ed. G.E.Likens), pp. 90109. Springer-Verlag, New York.
  • Solomon, A.M. & Bartlein, P.J. (1992) Past and future climate change: responses by mixed deciduous-coniferous forest ecosystems in northern Michigan. Canadian Journal of Forest Research, 22, 17271738.
  • Solomon, A.M. & Shugart, H.H. (1984) Integrating forest-stand simulations with paleoecological records to examine long-term forest dynamics. State and Change of Forest Ecosystems – Indicators in Current Research (ed. G.I.Ågren), pp. 333356. Department of Ecology and Environmental Research Report. Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala.
  • Solomon, A.M., West, D.C. & Solomon, J.A. (1981) Simulating the role of climate change and species immigration in forest succession. Forest Succession: Concepts and Application (eds D.C.West, H.H.Shugart & D.B.Botkin), pp. 154177. Springer, New York.
  • Thinon, M. & Talon, B. (1998) Ampleur de l’anthropisation des étages supérieurs dans les Alpes du sud: données pédoanthracologiques. Ecologie, 29, 323328.
  • Tinner, W. & Ammann, B. (2001) Timberline paleoecology in the Alps. PAGES News, 9, 911.
  • Tinner, W., Ammann, B. & Germann, P. (1996) Treeline fluctuations recorded for 12 500 Years by soil profiles, pollen, and plant macrofossils in the Central Swiss Alps. Arctic and Alpine Research, 28, 131147.
  • Tinner, W. & Kaltenrieder, P. (2005) Rapid responses of high-mountain vegetation to early-Holocene environmental changes in the Swiss Alps. Journal of Ecology, 93, 936947.
  • Tinner, W. & Theurillat, J.-P. (2003) Uppermost limit, extent, and fluctuations of the timberline and treeline ecocline in the Swiss Central Alps during the past 11 500 Years. Arctic, Antarctic, and Alpine Research, 35, 158169.
  • Tobolski, K. & Ammann, B. (2000) Macrofossils as records of plant responses to rapid Late Glacial climatic changes at three sites in the Swiss Alps. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 159 (3–4), 251259.
  • Vorren, K.-D. & Stavseth, A. (1996) Late Holocene vegetation and climate changes interpreted from pollen influx and plant macrofossils from sediments of an alpine lake in north Norway. Holocene TreeLine Oscillations, Dendrochronolgy and Palaeoclimate (ed. B.Frenzel), pp. 257269. Gustav Fischer Verlag, Stuttgart.
  • Welten, M. (1982) Vegetationsgeschichtliche Untersuchungen in den westlichen Schweizer Alpen: Bern–Wallis. Denkschriften Schweizerische Naturforschende Gesellschaft, 95, 1104.
  • Wick, L. (1994) Early-Holocene reforestation and vegetation change at a lake near the alpine forest limit: Lago Basso (2250 m a.s.l.), northern Italy. Festschrift Gerhard Lang. Dissertationes Botanicae, 234, 555563.
  • Wick, L. & Tinner, W. (1997) Vegetation changes and timberline fluctuations in the Central Alps as indicator of Holocene climatic oscillations. Arctic and Alpine Research, 29, 445458.