Appendix S1 Comparison of our original classification of abiotic stress with that resulting from using plant performance data.

Appendix S2 List of studies suggested by Lortie & Callaway 2006 ) as appropriate for testing the stress-gradient hypothesis, and reasons why they were not included in our data bases.

Appendix S3 Regression analyses of magnitude (or variance) in effect size of growth vs. the magnitude (or variance) of survival.

Appendix S4 Results of the random-effects model for the reduced (a) survival, (b) density and (c) growth data bases.

Appendix S5 References included in Appendices S1?S4 and not cited in the main text.

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