Floral diversity and the facilitation of pollination
Article first published online: 30 JAN 2006
Journal of Ecology
Volume 94, Issue 2, pages 295–304, March 2006
How to Cite
GHAZOUL, J. (2006), Floral diversity and the facilitation of pollination. Journal of Ecology, 94: 295–304. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2745.2006.01098.x
- Issue published online: 30 JAN 2006
- Article first published online: 30 JAN 2006
- Received 1 June 2005 revision accepted 31 October 2005 Handling Editor: Rob Brooker
- Allee effects;
- floral display size;
- plant reproduction;
- plant–pollinator interactions;
- pollinator competition;
- positive interactions;
- Raphanus raphanistrum;
- seed set
- 1Multiple-species floral displays have been hypothesized to facilitate pollination by attracting a greater number and/or diversity of pollinators. Here I present experimental confirmation of pollination facilitation among coflowering plants that have morphologically distinct flowers.
- 2Pollinator visits to Raphanus raphanistrum, a self-incompatible herbaceous plant, increased when it occurred with one or a combination of Cirsium arvense, Hypericum perforatum and Solidago canadensis than when it occurred alone.
- 3Enhanced visitation to R. raphanistrum in mixed species plots was reflected by increased seed production.
- 4Facilitative effects in pollination were conditional on the density and evenness of the floral mixture and graded into competition as the relative abundance of R. raphanistrum declined in a two-species mixture.
- 5Previously proposed mechanisms for facilitative interactions cannot explain facilitation among florally distinct plant displays. An alternative mechanism of differential but complementary floral rewards is proposed to explain facilitative attraction of pollinators.
- 6Facilitation of, and competition for, pollination has implications for regeneration by seed of rare or isolated plants, and of mitigating Allee effects that afflict such populations.